mcb104 _101-106_ week 1 - MCB 104 Discussion (sections 101...

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MCB 104 Discussion (sections 101 &106) Sept. 1-3, 2009 INTRODUCTION What are genetics, genomics, and cell biology? From Wikipedia… Genetics, (from Ancient Greek γενετικός genetikos , “genitive” and that from γένεσις genesis, “origin” [1][2][3] ), a discipline of biology, is the science of heredity and variation in living organisms. [4][5] The fact that living things inherit traits from their parents has been used since prehistoric times to improve crop plants and animals through selective breeding. However, the modern science of genetics, which seeks to understand the process of inheritance, only began with the work of Gregor Mendel in the mid-nineteenth century. [6] Although he did not know the physical basis for heredity, Mendel observed that organisms inherit traits via discrete units of inheritance, which are now called genes. Genomics is the study of the genomes of organisms. The field includes intensive efforts to determine the entire DNA sequence of organisms and fine-scale genetic mapping efforts. The field also includes studies of intragenomic phenomena such as heterosis, epistasis, pleiotropy and other interactions between loci and alleles within the genome. In contrast, the investigation of the roles and functions of single genes is a primary focus of molecular biology and is a common topic of modern medical and biological research. Research of single genes does not fall into the definition of genomics unless the aim of this genetic, pathway, and functional information analysis is to elucidate its effect on, place in, and response to the entire genome's networks. Cell biology (formerly cytology, from the Greek kytos , "container") is an academic discipline that studies cells – their physiological properties, their structure, the organelles they contain, interactions with their environment, their life cycle, division and death. This is done both on a microscopic and molecular level. Cell biology research encompasses both the great diversity
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mcb104 _101-106_ week 1 - MCB 104 Discussion (sections 101...

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