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preptest34 - LSAT PrepTest XXXIV Explained A Guide to the...

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LSAT PrepTest XXXIV Explained A Guide to the June, 2001 LSAT *LSAT is a registered trademark of the Law School Admission Council. *
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PREPTEST 34 JUNE 2001 KAPLAN EXPLANATION DOCUMENT © Kaplan, 2003. All rights reserved. SECTION I READING COMPREHENSION Passage One: “Authoritarian Rule” The Topic is raised in the very first line: authoritarian rulers (think of them as “tyrants” or “dictators” if it helps; don’t get hung up on language). The Scope is made clear in the lengthy sentence that comprises paragraph 1, namely, why and how they turn to democratic reforms. When these rulers move towards democratization, paragraph 1 asserts, it’s because they’re forced to because of “certain changes and mobilizations in civil society.” What changes? We expect the rest of the passage to spell them out and it does. There are three, and one paragraph is devoted to each. They are: social values turn toward freedom (paragraph 2); economic interests shift (paragraph 3), and society’s segments organize (paragraph 4). Indeed, each of those phrases could be usefully written next to the paragraph in question for quick reference later. The summary paragraph 5 uses the word “Ironically,” though it’s to be hoped that you would have seen the irony anyway, that the more successfully the authoritarian ruler wields power, the more he sets in motion the changes that force him to “go democratic” and give up some power. 1. (E) Global Most Reading Comprehension sections begin with a Global. The right answer here reflects paragraph 1 and paragraph 5, separately and together. Indeed, (E) is the only choice that mentions change whatsoever—the societal changes that lead to political ones. (A) misinterprets the force causing democratization as being the prospect of social unrest, rather than social pressures. (B) goes too far in asserting that authoritarian rulers “tend to ensure their own destruction” and puts too much emphasis on economics, only the second of the three factors described, a fault compounded by (C). (D) misses the topic—it’s authoritarian rulers, not authoritarian principles—and (D) constructs a portrait of instability as a necessary part of authoritarianism that the passage simply doesn’t suggest. 2. (C) Other (Author Attitude) “Author’s attitude”—approach by making the first decision, is the author positive or negative? The first and last sentences of paragraph 5 support (C). All authoritarian rule generates the three types of changes that, in turn, lead to more democratization. (A) is a 180 in sharp contrast to (C)’s positive and optimistic view. (B) twists the irony of authoritarian rulers’ bringing about their own diminution of power into puzzlement as to why they do so. (D) is too extreme: “Insistence” is not a mode that much if any of the passage falls into, and “inherent unjustness” goes beyond the scope. (E) is a 180 as well, in that the author sees the movement towards more democracy as inevitable, while (E) is worried that that movement might be somewhat stalled.
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