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Unformatted text preview: Limited Disclosure Version Vol.1 FE Exam Preparation Book Preparation Book for Fundamental Information Technology Engineer Examination Part1: Preparation for Morning Exam Part2: Trial Exam Set Information-Technology Promotion Agency, Japan FE Exam Preparation Book Vol. 1 Table of Contents Part 1 PREPARATION FOR MORNING EXAM Chapter 1 Computer Science Fundamentals 1.1 Basic Theory of Information 1.1.1 Radix Conversion 1.1.2 Numerical Representations 1.1.3 Non-Numerical Representations 1.1.4 Operations and Accuracy Quiz 1.2 Information and Logic 1.2.1 Logical Operations 1.2.2 BNF 1.2.3 Reverse Polish Notation Quiz 1.3 Data Structures 1.3.1 Arrays 1.3.2 Lists 1.3.3 Stacks 1.3.4 Queues (Waiting lists) 1.3.5 Trees 1.3.6 Hash Quiz 1.4 Algorithms 1.4.1 Search Algorithms 1.4.2 Sorting Algorithms 1.4.3 String Search Algorithms 1.4.4 Graph Algorithms Quiz Questions and Answers i 2 3 3 7 10 11 14 15 15 18 21 24 25 25 27 29 30 32 34 37 38 38 41 45 48 50 51 Chapter 2 Computer Systems 62 2.1 Hardware 2.1.1 Information Elements (Memory) 2.1.2 Processor Architecture 2.1.3 Memory Architecture 2.1.4 Magnetic Tape Units 2.1.5 Hard Disks 2.1.6 Terms Related to Performance/ RAID 2.1.7 Auxiliary Storage / Input and Output Units 2.1.8 Input and Output Interfaces Quiz 2.2 Operating Systems 2.2.1 Configuration and Objectives of OS 2.2.2 Job Management 2.2.3 Task Management 2.2.4 Data Management and File Organization 2.2.5 Memory Management Quiz 2.3 System Configuration Technology 2.3.1 Client Server Systems 2.3.2 System Configurations 2.3.3 Centralized Processing and Distributed Processing 2.3.4 Classification by Processing Mode Quiz 2.4 Performance and Reliability of Systems 2.4.1 Performance Indexes 2.4.2 Reliability 2.4.3 Availability Quiz 2.5 System Applications 2.5.1 Network Applications 2.5.2 Database Applications 2.5.3 Multimedia Systems Quiz Questions and Answers ii 63 63 65 68 70 73 77 79 81 83 85 85 87 89 90 95 99 100 100 102 104 106 108 109 109 111 113 116 118 118 121 123 125 126 Chapter 3 System Development 138 3.1 Methods of System Development 3.1.1 Programming Languages 3.1.2 Program Structures and Subroutines 3.1.3 Language Processors 3.1.4 Development Environments and Software Packages 3.1.5 Development Methods 3.1.6 Requirement Analysis Methods 3.1.7 Software Quality Management Quiz 3.2 Tasks of System Development Processes 3.2.1 External Design 3.2.2 Internal Design 3.2.3 Software Design Methods 3.2.4 Module Partitioning Criteria 3.2.5 Programming 3.2.6 Types and Procedures of Tests 3.2.7 Test Techniques Quiz Questions and Answers 139 139 141 143 144 147 149 151 154 155 155 157 159 162 163 165 167 170 172 Chapter 4 Network Technology 181 4.1 Protocols and Transmission Control 4.1.1 Network Architectures 4.1.2 Transmission Control Quiz 4.2 Transmission Technology 4.2.1 Error Control 4.2.2 Synchronization Control 4.2.3 Multiplexing and Communications 4.2.4 Switching Quiz 4.3 Networks 4.3.1 LANs 4.3.2 The Internet 4.3.3 Various Communication Units 4.3.4 Telecommunications Services Quiz Questions and Answers iii 182 182 184 187 188 188 190 192 194 195 196 196 198 200 202 204 205 Chapter 5 Database Technology 212 5.1 Data Models 5.1.1 3-layer Schemata 5.1.2 Logical Data Models 5.1.3 E-R Model and E-R Diagrams 5.1.4 Normalization and Reference Constraints 5.1.5 Data Manipulation in Relational Database Quiz 5.2 Database Languages 5.2.1 DDL and DML 5.2.2 SQL Quiz 5.3 Control of Databases 5.3.1 Database Control Functions 5.3.2 Distributed Databases Quiz Questions and Answers 213 213 215 217 218 221 223 224 224 226 231 232 232 234 236 237 Chapter 6 Security and Standardization 244 6.1 Security 245 245 6.1.1 Security Protection 6.1.2 Computer Viruses 247 6.1.3 Computer Crime 249 Quiz 251 252 6.2 Standardization 6.2.1 Standardization Organizations and Standardization of Development and Environment 252 6.2.2 Standardization of Data 254 6.2.3 Standardization of Data Exchange and Software 256 Quiz 258 259 Questions and Answers iv Chapter 7 Computerization and Management 7.1 Information Strategies 7.1.1 Management Control 7.1.2 Computerization Strategies Quiz 7.2 Corporate Accounting 7.2.1 Financial Accounting 7.2.2 Management Accounting Quiz 7.3 Management Engineering 7.3.1 IE 7.3.2 Schedule Control (OR) 7.3.3 Linear Programming 7.3.4 Inventory Control (OR) 7.3.5 Probability and Statistics Quiz 7.4 Use of Information Systems 7.4.1 Engineering Systems 7.4.2 Business Systems Quiz Questions and Answers Part 2 262 263 263 265 267 268 268 270 274 275 275 278 282 284 286 290 291 291 293 296 297 TRIAL EXAM SET Trial Exam Set 309 Fundamental IT Engineer Examination(Morning) Trial Answers and Comments Fundamental IT Engineer Examination(Afternoon) Trial Answers and Comments v 310 339 381 419 Part 1 PREPARATION FOR MORNING EXAM The Morning Exam questions are formulated from the following seven fields: Computer Science Fundamentals, Computer Systems, System Development, Network Technology, Database Technology, Security and Standardization, and Computerization and Management. Here, detailed explanations of each field are provided in the beginning of each chapter, followed by the actual questions used in the past exams, as well as answers and comments that are included in the end of each chapter. FE Exam Preparation Book Vol.1 -- Part1. Preparation For Morning Exam -- 1 1 Computer Science Fundamentals Chapter Objectives In order to become an information technology engineer, it is necessary to understand the structures of information processed by computers and the meaning of information processing. All information is stored as binary numbers in computers; therefore, in Section 1, we will learn the form in which decimal numbers and characters we use in daily life are stored in computers. In Section 2, we will study logical operations as a specific example of information processing. In Section 3, we will learn data structures, of which modification is necessary to increase the ease of data processing. Lastly, in Section 4, we will study specific data processing methods. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Basic Theory of Information Information and Logic Data Structures Algorithms [Terms and Concepts to Understand] Radix, binary, hexadecimal, fixed point, floating point, logical sum, logical product, exclusive logical sum, adder, list, stack, queue, linear search, binary search, bubble sort FE Exam Preparation Book Vol.1 -- Part1. Preparation For Morning Exam -- 2 1. Computer Science Fundamentals 1.1 Basic Theory of Information Introduction All information (such as characters and numerals) is expressed by combinations of 1s and 0s inside computers. An expression using only 1s and 0s is called a binary number. Here, we will learn expressive forms for information. 1.1.1 Radix Conversion Points In computers, all data is expressed by using binary numbers. Hexadecimal numbers are expressed by separating binary numbers into 4-bit groups. The term “Radix1 conversion” means, for instance, converting a decimal number to a binary number. Here, “10” in decimal numbers and “2” in binary numbers are called the radices. Inside a computer, all data is expressed as binary numbers since the two conditions of electricity, ON and OFF, correspond to the binary numbers. Each digit of a binary number is either a “0” or a “1,” so all numbers are expressed by two symbols—0 and 1. However, binary numbers, expressed as combinations of 0s and 1s, tend to be long and hard to understand, so the concept of hexadecimal notation was introduced. In hexadecimal notation, 4 bits2 (corresponding to numbers 0 through 15 in decimal notation) are represented by one digit (0 through F). The table below shows the correspondence among the decimal, binary, and hexadecimal notations. Decimal 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Binary 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 Decimal 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Hexadecimal 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 Binary 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 10000 Hexadecimal 8 9 A B C D E F 10 Radix: It is the number that forms a unit of weight for each digit in a numeration system such as binary, octal, decimal, and hexadecimal notations. The radix in each of these notations is 2, 8, 10, and 16, respectively. Binary system: uses 0 and 1. Octal system: uses 0 through 7. Decimal system: uses 0 through 9. Hexadecimal system: uses 0 through F. 2 Bit: It means the smallest unit of information inside a computer, expressed by a “0” or a “1.” Data inside a computer is expressed in binary, so a bit represents one digit in binary notation. For the purpose of convenience, the hexadecimal and octal notations are represented by partitioning binary numbers as follows: Quaternary: 2 bits (0 through 3) Octal: 3 bits (0 through 7) Hexadecimal: 4 bits (0 through F) FE Exam Preparation Book Vol.1 -- Part1. Preparation For Morning Exam -- 3 1. Computer Science Fundamentals Conversion of Binary or Hexadecimal Numbers into Decimal Numbers In general, when a value is given in the numeration system with radix r (r-ary system), we multiply each digit value with its corresponding weight3 and adds up the products in order to check what the value is in decimal. For digits to the left of the radix point, the weights are r0, r1, r2, … from the lowest digit. Thus, the conversion is shown below. (In these examples, (a) is shown in hexadecimal, and (b) is in binary.) (12A)16 = 1 × 162 + 2 × 161 + A × 160 = 256 + 32 + 10 = (298)10 …… (a) (1100100)2 = 1 × 26 + 1 × 25 + 0 × 24 + 0 × 23 + 1 × 22 + 0 × 21 + 0 × 20 = 64 + 32 + 4 …… (b) = (100)10 For those digits to the right of the radix point, the weights are r-1, r-2, r-3, … in order. Thus, the conversion is shown below. (In these examples, (c) is shown in hexadecimal, and (d) is in binary.) (0.4B)16 = 4 × 16-1 + B × 16-2 = 4 / 16 + 11 / 162 = 0.25 + 0.04296875 = (0.29296875)10 …… (c) (0.01011)2 = 0 × 2-1 + 1 × 2-2 + 0 × 2-3 + 1 × 2-4 + 1 × 2-5 = 0.25 + 0.0625 + 0.03125 = (0.34375)10 …… (d) Conversion of Decimal Integers to Binary Numbers Mathematically, using the fact that the n-th digit from the right (lowest) represents the place value of 2n-1 in binary, we can decompose a decimal number into a sum of powers of 2 (values 2n for some n). (59)10 = 32 + 16 + 8 + 2 + 1 = 25 + 24 + 23 + 21 + 20 = 1 × 25 + 1 × 24 + 1 × 23 + 0 × 22 + 1 × 21 + 1 × 20 (1 1 1 0 1 3 1)2 Weight: the value that indicates each scaling position in numerical expressions such as binary, octal, decimal, and hexadecimal. FE Exam Preparation Book Vol.1 -- Part1. Preparation For Morning Exam -- 4 1. Computer Science Fundamentals However, we can also divide the given number by 2 sequentially and repeat it until the quotient becomes 0. This is a mechanical conversion method, so calculation errors can be reduced. 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 59 29 14 7 3 1 0 Remainder …1 (1) 59 / 2 …1 (2) 29 / 2 …0 (3) 14 / 2 …1 (4) 7 / 2 …1 (5) 3 / 2 …1 (6) 1 / 2 =29 remainder 1 =14 remainder 1 = 7 remainder 0 = 3 remainder 1 = 1 remainder 1 = 0 remainder 1 ← “The process ends when the quotient is 0.” (7) List the remainders from the bottom. (59)10 = (111011)2 In addition, in order to convert a decimal number to a hexadecimal number, we can use 16 instead of 2 here. In general, to convert a decimal number to an n-ary number, use n instead of 2. Conversion of Decimal Numbers into Binary Numbers Mathematically, using the fact that the n-th digit after the radix point in binary represents the place value of 2-n, we can decompose a decimal number into a sum of powers of 2 (values 2n for some n). (0.59375)10 = 0.5 + 0.0625 + 0.03125 = 2-1 + 2-4 + 2-5 = 1 × 2-1 +0 × 2-2 + 0 × 2-3 + 1 × 2-4 + 1 × 2-5 (0.1 0 0 1 1)2 However, we can also multiply the fractional part (the part to the right of the decimal (or radix) point) by 2 sequentially and repeat it until the fractional part becomes 0. This is a mechanical conversion method, so calculation errors can be reduced. (5) List the integer-part values from the top. (0.59375)10 = (0.10011)2 0.59375 × 2= 1 .1875 (1) Write down only the fractional part. 0.1875 × 2= 0 .375 (2) Write down only the fractional part. 0.375 × 2= 0 .75 (3) Write down only the fractional part. 0.75 × 2= 1 .5 (4) Write down only the fractional part. 0.5 × 2= 1 .0 ← The process ends when the fractional part becomes 0.5 In addition, in order to convert a decimal number to a hexadecimal number, use 16 instead of 2. In general, to convert a decimal number to an n-ary number, use n instead of 2. 4 (Note) There is no guarantee that multiplying the fractional part by 2 always produces 0. We can verify this fact by converting 0.110 into the binary number; it becomes a repeating binary fraction. It is always possible to convert a binary fraction to a decimal fraction, but not vice versa. In such a case, we can stop the conversion at an appropriate place. 5 Repeating fraction: a number with a radix point where a sequence of digits is repeated indefinitely. For instance, 1 / 3 = 0.333…, and 1 / 7 = 0.142857142857…, wherein the patterns “3” and “142857” are repeated, respectively. FE Exam Preparation Book Vol.1 -- Part1. Preparation For Morning Exam -- 5 1. Computer Science Fundamentals Conversion between Hexadecimal and Binary Numbers We can use the fact that each digit of a hexadecimal number corresponds to 4 bits in binary. FROM BINARY TO HEXADECIMAL As shown below, we can group the binary number into blocks of 4 bits, starting from the lowest bit (rightmost bit), and then assign the corresponding hexadecimal digit for each block. If the last (leftmost) block is less than 4 bits, it is padded with leading 0s. (10110111100100)2 → (10 1101 1110 0100)2 → (2DE4)16 0 (10 1101 1110 0100)2 0010 1101 1110 0100 (2 D E 4) 16 FROM HEXADECIMAL TO BINARY As shown below, we can assign the corresponding 4-bit binary number to each digit of the given hexadecimal number. (2DE4)16 → (0010 1101 1110 0100)2 (2 D E 4)16 (0010 1101 1110 0100)2 Conversion between Hexadecimal Fractions and Decimal Fractions To convert between hexadecimal fractions and decimal fractions, we can combine the conversion between decimal and binary numbers together with the conversion between binary and hexadecimal numbers to reduce errors. FROM DECIMAL TO HEXADECIMAL FRACTION We can convert the given decimal number to binary first, and then convert the binary number to the corresponding hexadecimal number. In converting binary to hexadecimal, we can group the bits into 4-bit blocks, starting from the highest (leftmost) bit of the fractional part, and convert each block to the corresponding hexadecimal digit. If the last (rightmost) block is fewer than 4 bits, it is padded with trailing 0s. (0.71875)10 → (0. (0. 10111)2 → (0.B8)16 1011 1)2 0 0. 1011 (0. B 1000 8)16 FE Exam Preparation Book Vol.1 -- Part1. Preparation For Morning Exam -- 0.71875=(0.B8) 16 6 1. Computer Science Fundamentals FROM HEXADECIMAL TO DECIMAL6 First, we can convert the given hexadecimal number to the corresponding binary number, and then convert the binary number to the corresponding decimal number. (0.B8)16 → (0.10111000)2 → 0.71875 (0. 1011 1000)2 0 (0.10111000)2 = 2-1 + 2-3 + 2-4 + 2-5 = (0.71875)10 1.1.2 Numerical Representations Points Decimal numbers are represented in packed or zoned format. Binary numbers are represented in fixed-point or floating-point format. Decimal numbers used in our daily life need converting to a format which is convenient for computer processing, so there are various formats available to represent numerical values. Some of the formats that represent numerical values in a computer are shown below. Zoned decimal Highly compatible with text data (also known as unpacked decimal) Packed decimal Decimal number Faster computing speed Fixed-point Binary number Floating-point Used for integer data, indexes for arrays, etc. Used for real-number data, scientific computing, etc. 6 (FAQ) There are many questions mixing multiple radices (bases) such as “Which of the following is the correct result (in decimal) of adding the hexadecimal and binary numbers?” If the final result is to be represented in decimal, it is better that you convert the original numbers to decimal first and then calculate it. If the final result is to be represented in a radix other than 10 (binary, octal, hexadecimal, etc.), it is better that you convert the original numbers to binary first and then carry on the calculation. FE Exam Preparation Book Vol.1 -- Part1. Preparation For Morning Exam -- 7 1. Computer Science Fundamentals Decimal Number Representation In the zoned decimal format, each digit of the given decimal number is represented by 8 bits, and the highest 4 bits of the last digit are used for the sign information.7 The numeral bits of each byte contain the corresponding numerical value in binary +1234 0011 1 0001 2 0010 0011 1 -1234 0011 Zone bits8 3 0011 + 1100 4 0100 3 0011 - 4 0011 1100 0100 2 0001 0011 0010 0011 Numeral bits Sign bits Sign bits 1100: Positive or zero 1101: Negative Numeral bits Zone bits: 0011 In the packed decimal format, each digit of the decimal number is represented with 4 bits, and the last four bits indicate the sign. The leading space of the highest byte is padded with 0s. The bit pattern of the sign bits is the same as that of the zoned decimal format. In the examples shown below, 2 bytes and 4 bits are sufficient to represent the numbers, but in both cases 3 bytes are used by appending four leading 0s since computers reserve areas in byte9 units. +1234 0 0000 1 0001 2 0010 3 0011 4 0100 + 1100 -1234 0 0000 1 0001 2 0010 3 0011 4 0100 1101 Fixed-Point Number Representation In fixed-point number, binary integers are represented in fixed-length binary. Two's complement is used to represent negative numbers, so the leading bit (sign bit) of a negative number is always a “1.” 8 bits, 16 bits, 32 bits Sign 2 n 2 n-1 2n-2 2n-3 22 21 20 (Radix point) 1: negative number, 0: positive number or 0 7 (Hints and Tips) If the sign (positive or negative) is not used in the zoned decimal format, the sign bits are identical to the zone bits. 8 (Note) The bit patterns in the zone bits are different depending on the computer. The examples shown here have “0011,” but some computers use “1111.” The numeral bits, however, are identical. 9 Byte: A byte is a unit of 8 bits. It is the unit for representing characters. FE Exam Preparation Book Vol.1 -- Part1. Preparation For Morning Exam -- 8 1. Computer Science Fundamentals Let us represent the decimal number “-20” in two's complement. First, we can represent the decimal number “+20” in binary as shown below. (+20)10 = 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 Reverse each bit. 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 +) (-20)10 = 0 1 1 One's complement10 Add 1 Two's complement Hence, (-20)10 is represented as (11101100)2. The bit length varies from computer to computer. In general, the numbers from -2n-1 through 2n-1 – 1, a total of 2n numbers, can be represented by using n bits. Note that, considering only the absolute values, one more negative number can be represented in comparison with positive numbers. Floating-Point Number Representation In floating-point number, a real number is represented in exponential form ( a = ± m × r e ) using a fixed-length binary number, so it is possible to represent very large (and very small) numbers, such as those used in scientific computing. However, since the computer register11 has a limited number of digits, an error may occur in representing the value of repeating fraction. 1 bit 0 8 bits 10000100 ↑ ↑ Mantissa sign ±12 Exponent e 23 bits (single precision) 11010000000000000000000 ↑ ▲ Radix point Mantissa m This is the International Standard Form known as IEEE754. 10 Complement: The complement of a number is the value obtained by subtracting the given number from a certain fixed number, which is a power of the radix or a power of the radix minus 1. For instance, in decimal, there are ten's complements and nine's complements. In binary, there are two's complements and one's complements. In general, in the r-ary system, there are r's complements and (r-1)'s complements. If x...
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