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Version Vol.1 FE Exam
Preparation Book
Preparation Book for Fundamental Information Technology Engineer Examination Part1: Preparation for Morning Exam
Part2: Trial Exam Set InformationTechnology Promotion Agency, Japan FE Exam Preparation Book Vol. 1 Table of Contents
Part 1 PREPARATION FOR MORNING EXAM Chapter 1 Computer Science Fundamentals
1.1 Basic Theory of Information
1.1.1 Radix Conversion
1.1.2 Numerical Representations
1.1.3 NonNumerical Representations
1.1.4 Operations and Accuracy
Quiz
1.2 Information and Logic
1.2.1 Logical Operations
1.2.2 BNF
1.2.3 Reverse Polish Notation
Quiz
1.3 Data Structures
1.3.1 Arrays
1.3.2 Lists
1.3.3 Stacks
1.3.4 Queues (Waiting lists)
1.3.5 Trees
1.3.6 Hash
Quiz
1.4 Algorithms
1.4.1 Search Algorithms
1.4.2 Sorting Algorithms
1.4.3 String Search Algorithms
1.4.4 Graph Algorithms
Quiz
Questions and Answers i 2
3
3
7
10
11
14
15
15
18
21
24
25
25
27
29
30
32
34
37
38
38
41
45
48
50
51 Chapter 2 Computer Systems 62 2.1 Hardware
2.1.1 Information Elements (Memory)
2.1.2 Processor Architecture
2.1.3 Memory Architecture
2.1.4 Magnetic Tape Units
2.1.5 Hard Disks
2.1.6 Terms Related to Performance/ RAID
2.1.7 Auxiliary Storage / Input and Output Units
2.1.8 Input and Output Interfaces
Quiz
2.2 Operating Systems
2.2.1 Configuration and Objectives of OS
2.2.2 Job Management
2.2.3 Task Management
2.2.4 Data Management and File Organization
2.2.5 Memory Management
Quiz
2.3 System Configuration Technology
2.3.1 Client Server Systems
2.3.2 System Configurations
2.3.3 Centralized Processing and Distributed Processing
2.3.4 Classification by Processing Mode
Quiz
2.4 Performance and Reliability of Systems
2.4.1 Performance Indexes
2.4.2 Reliability
2.4.3 Availability
Quiz
2.5 System Applications
2.5.1 Network Applications
2.5.2 Database Applications
2.5.3 Multimedia Systems
Quiz
Questions and Answers ii 63
63
65
68
70
73
77
79
81
83
85
85
87
89
90
95
99
100
100
102
104
106
108
109
109
111
113
116
118
118
121
123
125
126 Chapter 3 System Development 138 3.1 Methods of System Development
3.1.1 Programming Languages
3.1.2 Program Structures and Subroutines
3.1.3 Language Processors
3.1.4 Development Environments and Software Packages
3.1.5 Development Methods
3.1.6 Requirement Analysis Methods
3.1.7 Software Quality Management
Quiz
3.2 Tasks of System Development Processes
3.2.1 External Design
3.2.2 Internal Design
3.2.3 Software Design Methods
3.2.4 Module Partitioning Criteria
3.2.5 Programming
3.2.6 Types and Procedures of Tests
3.2.7 Test Techniques
Quiz
Questions and Answers 139
139
141
143
144
147
149
151
154
155
155
157
159
162
163
165
167
170
172 Chapter 4 Network Technology 181 4.1 Protocols and Transmission Control
4.1.1 Network Architectures
4.1.2 Transmission Control
Quiz
4.2 Transmission Technology
4.2.1 Error Control
4.2.2 Synchronization Control
4.2.3 Multiplexing and Communications
4.2.4 Switching
Quiz
4.3 Networks
4.3.1 LANs
4.3.2 The Internet
4.3.3 Various Communication Units
4.3.4 Telecommunications Services
Quiz
Questions and Answers iii 182
182
184
187
188
188
190
192
194
195
196
196
198
200
202
204
205 Chapter 5 Database Technology 212 5.1 Data Models
5.1.1 3layer Schemata
5.1.2 Logical Data Models
5.1.3 ER Model and ER Diagrams
5.1.4 Normalization and Reference Constraints
5.1.5 Data Manipulation in Relational Database
Quiz
5.2 Database Languages
5.2.1 DDL and DML
5.2.2 SQL
Quiz
5.3 Control of Databases
5.3.1 Database Control Functions
5.3.2 Distributed Databases
Quiz
Questions and Answers 213
213
215
217
218
221
223
224
224
226
231
232
232
234
236
237 Chapter 6 Security and Standardization 244 6.1 Security
245
245
6.1.1 Security Protection
6.1.2 Computer Viruses
247
6.1.3 Computer Crime
249
Quiz
251
252
6.2 Standardization
6.2.1 Standardization Organizations and Standardization of Development and
Environment
252
6.2.2 Standardization of Data
254
6.2.3 Standardization of Data Exchange and Software
256
Quiz
258
259
Questions and Answers iv Chapter 7 Computerization and Management
7.1 Information Strategies
7.1.1 Management Control
7.1.2 Computerization Strategies
Quiz
7.2 Corporate Accounting
7.2.1 Financial Accounting
7.2.2 Management Accounting
Quiz
7.3 Management Engineering
7.3.1 IE
7.3.2 Schedule Control (OR)
7.3.3 Linear Programming
7.3.4 Inventory Control (OR)
7.3.5 Probability and Statistics
Quiz
7.4 Use of Information Systems
7.4.1 Engineering Systems
7.4.2 Business Systems
Quiz
Questions and Answers Part 2 262
263
263
265
267
268
268
270
274
275
275
278
282
284
286
290
291
291
293
296
297 TRIAL EXAM SET Trial Exam Set 309 Fundamental IT Engineer Examination(Morning) Trial
Answers and Comments
Fundamental IT Engineer Examination(Afternoon) Trial
Answers and Comments v 310
339
381
419 Part 1 PREPARATION FOR MORNING EXAM
The Morning Exam questions are formulated from the following seven
fields: Computer Science Fundamentals, Computer Systems, System
Development, Network Technology, Database Technology, Security
and Standardization, and Computerization and Management.
Here, detailed explanations of each field are provided in the
beginning of each chapter, followed by the actual questions used in
the past exams, as well as answers and comments that are included
in the end of each chapter. FE Exam Preparation Book Vol.1
 Part1. Preparation For Morning Exam  1 1 Computer Science
Fundamentals Chapter Objectives
In order to become an information technology engineer, it
is necessary to understand the structures of information
processed by computers and the meaning of information
processing. All information is stored as binary numbers in
computers; therefore, in Section 1, we will learn the form
in which decimal numbers and characters we use in daily
life are stored in computers. In Section 2, we will study
logical operations as a specific example of information
processing. In Section 3, we will learn data structures, of
which modification is necessary to increase the ease of
data processing. Lastly, in Section 4, we will study
specific data processing methods. 1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4 Basic Theory of Information
Information and Logic
Data Structures
Algorithms [Terms and Concepts to Understand]
Radix, binary, hexadecimal, fixed point, floating point, logical sum, logical product,
exclusive logical sum, adder, list, stack, queue, linear search, binary search, bubble
sort FE Exam Preparation Book Vol.1
 Part1. Preparation For Morning Exam  2 1. Computer Science Fundamentals 1.1 Basic Theory of Information
Introduction
All information (such as characters and numerals) is expressed by combinations of 1s and 0s
inside computers. An expression using only 1s and 0s is called a binary number. Here, we will
learn expressive forms for information. 1.1.1 Radix Conversion
Points In computers, all data is expressed by using binary numbers.
Hexadecimal numbers are expressed by separating binary numbers
into 4bit groups. The term “Radix1 conversion” means, for instance, converting a decimal number to a binary
number. Here, “10” in decimal numbers and “2” in binary numbers are called the radices.
Inside a computer, all data is expressed as binary numbers since the two conditions of
electricity, ON and OFF, correspond to the binary numbers. Each digit of a binary number is
either a “0” or a “1,” so all numbers are expressed by two symbols—0 and 1.
However, binary numbers, expressed as combinations of 0s and 1s, tend to be long and hard to
understand, so the concept of hexadecimal notation was introduced. In hexadecimal notation,
4 bits2 (corresponding to numbers 0 through 15 in decimal notation) are represented by one
digit (0 through F).
The table below shows the correspondence among the decimal, binary, and hexadecimal
notations.
Decimal
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7 Binary
0000
0001
0010
0011
0100
0101
0110
0111 Decimal
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16 Hexadecimal 0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7 1 Binary
1000
1001
1010
1011
1100
1101
1110
1111
10000 Hexadecimal 8
9
A
B
C
D
E
F
10 Radix: It is the number that forms a unit of weight for each digit in a numeration system such as binary, octal, decimal,
and hexadecimal notations. The radix in each of these notations is 2, 8, 10, and 16, respectively.
Binary system: uses 0 and 1.
Octal system: uses 0 through 7.
Decimal system: uses 0 through 9.
Hexadecimal system: uses 0 through F.
2
Bit: It means the smallest unit of information inside a computer, expressed by a “0” or a “1.” Data inside a computer is
expressed in binary, so a bit represents one digit in binary notation. For the purpose of convenience, the hexadecimal and
octal notations are represented by partitioning binary numbers as follows:
Quaternary: 2 bits (0 through 3)
Octal: 3 bits (0 through 7)
Hexadecimal: 4 bits (0 through F)
FE Exam Preparation Book Vol.1
 Part1. Preparation For Morning Exam  3 1. Computer Science Fundamentals Conversion of Binary or Hexadecimal Numbers into
Decimal Numbers
In general, when a value is given in the numeration system with radix r (rary system), we
multiply each digit value with its corresponding weight3 and adds up the products in order to
check what the value is in decimal. For digits to the left of the radix point, the weights are r0, r1,
r2, … from the lowest digit. Thus, the conversion is shown below. (In these examples, (a) is
shown in hexadecimal, and (b) is in binary.)
(12A)16 = 1 × 162 + 2 × 161 + A × 160
= 256 + 32 + 10
= (298)10 …… (a) (1100100)2 = 1 × 26 + 1 × 25 + 0 × 24 + 0 × 23 + 1 × 22 + 0 × 21 + 0 × 20
= 64 + 32 + 4
…… (b)
= (100)10
For those digits to the right of the radix point, the weights are r1, r2, r3, … in order. Thus, the
conversion is shown below. (In these examples, (c) is shown in hexadecimal, and (d) is in
binary.)
(0.4B)16 = 4 × 161 + B × 162
= 4 / 16 + 11 / 162
= 0.25 + 0.04296875
= (0.29296875)10 …… (c) (0.01011)2 = 0 × 21 + 1 × 22 + 0 × 23 + 1 × 24 + 1 × 25
= 0.25 + 0.0625 + 0.03125
= (0.34375)10 …… (d) Conversion of Decimal Integers to Binary Numbers
Mathematically, using the fact that the nth digit from the right (lowest) represents the place
value of 2n1 in binary, we can decompose a decimal number into a sum of powers of 2 (values
2n for some n).
(59)10 = 32 + 16 + 8 + 2 + 1 = 25 + 24 + 23 + 21 + 20
= 1 × 25 + 1 × 24 + 1 × 23 + 0 × 22 + 1 × 21 + 1 × 20
(1 1 1 0 1 3 1)2 Weight: the value that indicates each scaling position in numerical expressions such as binary, octal, decimal, and
hexadecimal. FE Exam Preparation Book Vol.1
 Part1. Preparation For Morning Exam  4 1. Computer Science Fundamentals However, we can also divide the given number by 2 sequentially and repeat it until the quotient
becomes 0. This is a mechanical conversion method, so calculation errors can be reduced. 4
2
2
2
2
2
2 59
29
14
7
3
1 0 Remainder
…1
(1) 59 / 2
…1
(2) 29 / 2
…0
(3) 14 / 2
…1
(4) 7 / 2
…1
(5) 3 / 2
…1
(6) 1 / 2 =29 remainder 1
=14 remainder 1
= 7 remainder 0
= 3 remainder 1
= 1 remainder 1
= 0 remainder 1 ← “The process ends when the quotient is 0.” (7) List the remainders from the bottom. (59)10 = (111011)2 In addition, in order to convert a decimal number to a hexadecimal number, we can use 16
instead of 2 here. In general, to convert a decimal number to an nary number, use n instead of
2. Conversion of Decimal Numbers into Binary Numbers
Mathematically, using the fact that the nth digit after the radix point in binary represents the
place value of 2n, we can decompose a decimal number into a sum of powers of 2 (values 2n
for some n).
(0.59375)10 = 0.5 + 0.0625 + 0.03125
= 21 + 24 + 25
= 1 × 21 +0 × 22 + 0 × 23 + 1 × 24 + 1 × 25
(0.1 0 0 1 1)2 However, we can also multiply the fractional part (the part to the right of the decimal (or radix)
point) by 2 sequentially and repeat it until the fractional part becomes 0. This is a mechanical
conversion method, so calculation errors can be reduced.
(5) List the integerpart values from the top. (0.59375)10 = (0.10011)2 0.59375 × 2= 1 .1875 (1) Write down only the fractional part. 0.1875 × 2= 0 .375 (2) Write down only the fractional part. 0.375 × 2= 0 .75 (3) Write down only the fractional part. 0.75 × 2= 1 .5 (4) Write down only the fractional part. 0.5 × 2= 1 .0 ← The process ends when the fractional part becomes 0.5 In addition, in order to convert a decimal number to a hexadecimal number, use 16 instead of 2.
In general, to convert a decimal number to an nary number, use n instead of 2.
4 （Note） There is no guarantee that multiplying the fractional part by 2 always produces 0. We can verify this fact by
converting 0.110 into the binary number; it becomes a repeating binary fraction. It is always possible to convert a binary
fraction to a decimal fraction, but not vice versa. In such a case, we can stop the conversion at an appropriate place.
5
Repeating fraction: a number with a radix point where a sequence of digits is repeated indefinitely. For instance, 1 / 3 =
0.333…, and 1 / 7 = 0.142857142857…, wherein the patterns “3” and “142857” are repeated, respectively.
FE Exam Preparation Book Vol.1
 Part1. Preparation For Morning Exam  5 1. Computer Science Fundamentals Conversion between Hexadecimal and Binary Numbers
We can use the fact that each digit of a hexadecimal number corresponds to 4 bits in binary.
FROM BINARY TO HEXADECIMAL
As shown below, we can group the binary number into blocks of 4 bits, starting from the lowest
bit (rightmost bit), and then assign the corresponding hexadecimal digit for each block. If the
last (leftmost) block is less than 4 bits, it is padded with leading 0s.
(10110111100100)2 → (10 1101 1110 0100)2 → (2DE4)16
0 (10 1101 1110 0100)2 0010 1101 1110 0100 (2 D E 4) 16 FROM HEXADECIMAL TO BINARY
As shown below, we can assign the corresponding 4bit binary number to each digit of the
given hexadecimal number.
(2DE4)16 → (0010 1101 1110 0100)2
(2 D E 4)16
(0010 1101 1110 0100)2 Conversion between Hexadecimal Fractions and
Decimal Fractions
To convert between hexadecimal fractions and decimal fractions, we can combine the
conversion between decimal and binary numbers together with the conversion between binary
and hexadecimal numbers to reduce errors.
FROM DECIMAL TO HEXADECIMAL FRACTION
We can convert the given decimal number to binary first, and then convert the binary number to
the corresponding hexadecimal number. In converting binary to hexadecimal, we can group the
bits into 4bit blocks, starting from the highest (leftmost) bit of the fractional part, and convert
each block to the corresponding hexadecimal digit. If the last (rightmost) block is fewer than 4
bits, it is padded with trailing 0s.
(0.71875)10 → (0.
(0. 10111)2 → (0.B8)16 1011 1)2 0 0. 1011 (0. B 1000
8)16 FE Exam Preparation Book Vol.1
 Part1. Preparation For Morning Exam  0.71875=(0.B8) 16 6 1. Computer Science Fundamentals FROM HEXADECIMAL TO DECIMAL6
First, we can convert the given hexadecimal number to the corresponding binary number, and
then convert the binary number to the corresponding decimal number.
(0.B8)16 → (0.10111000)2 → 0.71875
(0. 1011 1000)2 0
(0.10111000)2 = 21 + 23 + 24 + 25 = (0.71875)10 1.1.2 Numerical Representations
Points Decimal numbers are represented in packed or zoned format.
Binary numbers are represented in fixedpoint or floatingpoint
format. Decimal numbers used in our daily life need converting to a format which is convenient for
computer processing, so there are various formats available to represent numerical values.
Some of the formats that represent numerical values in a computer are shown below.
Zoned decimal Highly compatible with text data (also known as
unpacked decimal) Packed decimal Decimal
number Faster computing speed Fixedpoint
Binary
number Floatingpoint Used for integer data, indexes for arrays, etc.
Used for realnumber data, scientific computing,
etc. 6 （FAQ） There are many questions mixing multiple radices (bases) such as “Which of the following is the correct result
(in decimal) of adding the hexadecimal and binary numbers?” If the final result is to be represented in decimal, it is better
that you convert the original numbers to decimal first and then calculate it. If the final result is to be represented in a radix
other than 10 (binary, octal, hexadecimal, etc.), it is better that you convert the original numbers to binary first and then
carry on the calculation.
FE Exam Preparation Book Vol.1
 Part1. Preparation For Morning Exam  7 1. Computer Science Fundamentals Decimal Number Representation
In the zoned decimal format, each digit of the given decimal number is represented by 8 bits,
and the highest 4 bits of the last digit are used for the sign information.7 The numeral bits of
each byte contain the corresponding numerical value in binary
+1234 0011 1
0001 2
0010 0011 1 1234 0011 Zone bits8 3
0011 +
1100 4
0100 3 0011  4 0011 1100 0100 2 0001 0011 0010 0011 Numeral bits Sign bits Sign bits 1100: Positive or zero
1101: Negative Numeral bits Zone bits: 0011 In the packed decimal format, each digit of the decimal number is represented with 4 bits, and
the last four bits indicate the sign. The leading space of the highest byte is padded with 0s. The
bit pattern of the sign bits is the same as that of the zoned decimal format. In the examples
shown below, 2 bytes and 4 bits are sufficient to represent the numbers, but in both cases 3
bytes are used by appending four leading 0s since computers reserve areas in byte9 units.
+1234 0
0000 1
0001 2
0010 3
0011 4
0100 +
1100 1234 0
0000 1
0001 2
0010 3
0011 4
0100 1101 FixedPoint Number Representation
In fixedpoint number, binary integers are represented in fixedlength binary. Two's
complement is used to represent negative numbers, so the leading bit (sign bit) of a negative
number is always a “1.”
8 bits, 16 bits, 32 bits
Sign 2 n 2 n1 2n2 2n3 22 21 20
(Radix point) 1: negative number, 0: positive number or 0 7 （Hints and Tips） If the sign (positive or negative) is not used in the zoned decimal format, the sign bits are identical to
the zone bits.
8
(Note) The bit patterns in the zone bits are different depending on the computer. The examples shown here have “0011,”
but some computers use “1111.” The numeral bits, however, are identical.
9
Byte: A byte is a unit of 8 bits. It is the unit for representing characters.
FE Exam Preparation Book Vol.1
 Part1. Preparation For Morning Exam  8 1. Computer Science Fundamentals Let us represent the decimal number “20” in two's complement. First, we can represent the
decimal number “+20” in binary as shown below.
(+20)10 = 0 0 1
1 0 0 0 1 1
0
1
Reverse each bit.
1
0
1
0 1 1 1 0 1
1
0 +)
(20)10 = 0 1 1 One's complement10
Add 1
Two's complement Hence, (20)10 is represented as (11101100)2. The bit length varies from computer to computer.
In general, the numbers from 2n1 through 2n1 – 1, a total of 2n numbers, can be represented by
using n bits. Note that, considering only the absolute values, one more negative number can be
represented in comparison with positive numbers. FloatingPoint Number Representation
In floatingpoint number, a real number is represented in exponential form ( a = ± m × r e )
using a fixedlength binary number, so it is possible to represent very large (and very small)
numbers, such as those used in scientific computing. However, since the computer register11
has a limited number of digits, an error may occur in representing the value of repeating
fraction.
1 bit
0 8 bits
10000100
↑ ↑ Mantissa sign
±12 Exponent
e 23 bits (single precision)
11010000000000000000000
↑ ▲ Radix
point Mantissa
m This is the International Standard Form known as IEEE754. 10 Complement: The complement of a number is the value obtained by subtracting the given number from a certain fixed
number, which is a power of the radix or a power of the radix minus 1. For instance, in decimal, there are ten's
complements and nine's complements. In binary, there are two's complements and one's complements. In general, in the
rary system, there are r's complements and (r1)'s complements. If x...
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