Integrative Biology 132 - Spring 2004 - Lehman - Midterm1

Integrative Biology 132 - Spring 2004 - Lehman - Midterm1 -...

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IB 132 Midterm 1 (Professor Lehman, Lectures 1-8) February 24, 2004 1. Homeostasis is: A. feedback control of key physiological variables. B. maintenance of key physiological variables within a narrow range despite perturbances. C. maintenance of the “internal milleu.” D. negative feedback control of key physiological variables. E. none of the above. 2. Which is not an example of a negative feedback control system? A. regulation of blood pressure at rest B. regulation of heart rate at rest C. regulation of composition of the extracellular fluid D. an anticipatory postural adjustment E. stretch reflex 3. Positive feedback systems are: A. rare in physiology. B. always unstable. C. never useful in physiology. D. important in a sense of well-being. E. not suited for keeping a variable near a setpoint. 4. Feedforward control requires: A. sensation of the output. B. sensation of the perturbation. C. an error in the output. D. comparison between what is desired and what occurs. E. the central nervous system. 5. Advantages of neural signals over chemical signals in physiological control systems do not include : A. the possibility of different responses in different tissues. B. rapid response. C. long-distance communication. D. ease of computation. E. specific targeting of signals. 6. Chemical signals can be used: A. as a signal from one cell to a distant cell or distant cells. B. as a signal from one cell to nearby cells only. C. as a signal from within a cell to itself. D. within a cell. E. all of the above. 7. Diffusion of a small ion for a distance of 1 mm takes about how much time? A. 7 milliseconds B. 7 seconds C. 7 minutes D. 7 hours E. 7 days
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8. Which is not a mechanism of action of a lipid-insoluble messenger? A. The first messenger binds to a receptor and causes release of IP 3 and DAG. B. The first messenger binds to a receptor on the cell’s surface, part of which is an ion channel. C. The first messenger binds to a receptor on the cell’s surface, causing a G protein to active an effector protein, also located in the cell’s plasma membrane. D. The first messenger binds to a receptor on the cell’s surface, which is a tyrosine kinase. E. The first messenger enters the cell, causing intracellular release of a second messenger. 9. Which is not a plausible reason for calcium to be a common intracellular signal? A. It was common in the ancient ocean. B. Calcium pumps evolved very early in the history of life. C. Calcium combines easily with some common anions and precipitates. D. It was the only abundant divalent cation in the ancient ocean. E. It is partly chance. 10. Which is not a plausible reason for phosphorylation to be a common mechanism for activating enzymes? A. Phosphoryl groups are highly charged, so it can have a big effect near their
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Integrative Biology 132 - Spring 2004 - Lehman - Midterm1 -...

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