Lecture 1 Intro to Cognitive Science

Lecture 1 Intro to - Lecture 1 Introduction to Cognitive Cognitive Science 1 Welcome Welcome Class Class Meets M,W,F 1:00-3:15 PM SSS 201 1:00Class

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 1: Introduction to Cognitive Cognitive Science 6/1/09 1 Welcome! Welcome! Class Class Meets: M,W,F 1:00-3:15 PM SSS 201 1:00Class Class Website: http://classesv2.yale.edu Instructor: Instructor: Scott Barry Kaufman, Ph.D. Teaching Fellow: Julie Huang Teaching Fellow: Julie Huang Office Hours: Scott: Mondays , 3:30-4:30 PM, Office Hours Mondays 3:30 4:30 PM McDougal Center ; Julie: Wednesdays, 10:00-11:00AM, 10:00SSS 414 My My Email: [email protected] 2 Format of Course Format of Course Three lectures week (Monday, Wednesday, Three lectures a week (Monday, Wednesday, Friday) Friday) Required Required Reading In In order to do well in the course you must both attend the lectures and do the required reading. 3 Textbook Textbook 4 Textbook Textbook 5 Course Evaluation Course Evaluation Cl Class Participation = 10% 10% Midterm Exam 25% Midterm Exam = 25% Final Final Exam (not cumulative) = 25% (not Questions Questions = 15% Final Final Paper = 25% 6 Course Description Course Description Main Goal of Cognitive Science complete Main Goal of Cognitive Science: A complete understanding understanding of the nature of mind. This This Course Examine theoretical and empirical approaches to Examine theoretical and empirical approaches to understanding understanding mental processes Examine different tools and methods used by Examine different tools and methods used by various various disciplines to understand the mind 7 Cognitive Science Cognitive Science The study of how the mind works The study of how the mind works! Perception Perception Attention Attention Language Language Reasoning Reasoning Intelligence Intelligence Creativity Creativity Memory Memory Expertise Expertise ProblemProblem-Solving Emotions Emotions Morality Morality Consciousness Consciousness 8 Wh Why is studying the the mind so difficult? difficult? 9 Why Psychology? Why Psychology? 10 But But what does count as psychology? Kenneth Pike Human behavior cannot be understood in Kenneth Pike– Human behavior cannot be understood in terms terms of objective physical properties of the world Etic Etic properties- objective physical properties of objective physical properties of the the world Emic properties- the way in which the world is i esperceived or represented in the mind 11 FolkFolk-psychology explanations explanations Why do people do the things they do? Why do people do the things they do? 12 Beliefs and Desires Beliefs and Desires 13 Why are you here today? Why are you here today? 14 15 Representations Representations Psychology needs to speak of how we see Psychology needs to speak of how we see a stimulus, stimulus, what we believe and what we want. In other words how we represent the world other words, how we represent the world. 16 How How are representations possible? How is it possible for a biological entity made of protoplasm and governed by natural laws to have such a property? 17 Beliefs and Causality Beliefs and Causality How can the content of beliefs enter into the How can the content of beliefs enter into the causation causation or the explanation of behavior? In science In science, Y X All All that is required is belief not physical instance A belief is a strange property since beliefs need not exist, exist, or even be physically possible 18 Existence Proof Existence Proof 19 Representations Representations Representations are encoded in system of Representations are encoded in a system of physicallyphysically-instantiated symbolic codes The physical form that these codes take explains The physical form that these codes take explains why why the system behaves the way it does, through the unfolding of natural laws over the physical the unfolding of natural laws over the physical codes codes 20 Inferences Inferences New beliefs are established that were not part of New beliefs are established that were not part of the the original stimulus information 21 Foundational Foundational Assumption of Cognitive Cognitive Science Logical inferences can be made through Logical inferences can be made through a process process of manipulating meaningless symbols Computing is what the brain does to produce Computing is what the brain does to produce intelligent intelligent behavior Mathematician Kurt Godel (1936)– Anything that can be described in terms of manipulations of symbols can be carried out by a very simple machine (later called a Turing machine) 22 Interdisciplinary Interdisciplinary Study of Mind Mind Philoso Philosophy Psychology Psychology Neuroscience Neuroscience Evolutionary Evolutionary Biology Linguistics Linguistics Artificial Artificial Intelligence/ Robotics Not Not sum, but UNITY of all disciplines 23 Tri Tri-Level Hypothesis Hypothesis This coverage from multiple disciplines is no This coverage from multiple disciplines is no accident! accident! You You need multiple viewpoints in order to fully understand the mind. This This is not just being friendly; it’s a specific scientific thesis thesis. 24 Tri Tri-Level Hypothesis Hypothesis Different questions refer to different levels of functioning. questions refer to different levels of functioning. 1. 2. 3. Computation Level (representational, semantic level, wha what) What’s What’s the problem being solved? What form are representations encoded? Algorithmic Level (symbolic syntactical level ho Algorithmic Level (symbolic, syntactical level, how) How How is the problem solved? What are the steps? Implementation Level (physical level) Level (physical level) What is the computational machine made of? Wires? Meat? What are the architectural constraints on the computations? 25 Instinct Blindness! Instinct Blindness! “[T]he ‘naturalness’ of certain inferences acts to obstruct the discovery of the mechanisms that produced them. Cognitive instincts create problems for cognitive scientists. Precisely because they work so well — because they process information so effortlessly and they process information so effortlessly and automatically — we tend to be blind to their existence. Not suspecting they exist, we do not conduct research programs to find them.” (Cosmides & Tooby) 26 Instinct Blindness Instinct Blindness 27 28 29 30 31 32 Each Level is Critical! Each Level is Critical! You can’t get by with only computation! You can’t get by with only computation! e.g. e.g. afterimages 33 34 35 Each Level is Critical! Each Level is Critical! You can’t get by with only computation! You can’t get by with only computation! e.g. e.g. afterimages You You can’t get by with only implementation “Trying “Trying to understand perception by studying only neurons is like trying to understand bird flight by studying studying only feathers: It just cannot be done.” (Marr) All of this necessitates cognitive science! All 36 Constraints in Cognitive Constraints Science Constraints Constraints from Below Many Many processes of the mind computed quickly (500 ms per process) process) Takes Takes 5ms for a signal to travel down a neuron E.g. the 100-step Rule the 100 Rule Neuroscience Neuroscience constraining psychology Constraints Constraints from Above Computational Computational analysis constraining psychology and neuroscience Can’t look for physical instantiations of things in the brain that ph in thin in th br th were were never represented 37 What What determines what we do? do? Wh What we know, believe, and represent and what and represent and what our capacities are our capacities are 38 So what in your mind? So, what’s in your mind? -Symbolic codes -Thinking is operations Thi over these codes over these codes 39 Reverse Reverse-Engineering Reverse Engineering: Engineering: Analyzing a working machine into its parts and interactions with the goal of explaining, manipulating, and replicating its behavior. behavior. Science (biology) has been reverse-engineering the body Science (biology) has been reverse the body Cognitive Cognitive science attempts to reverse-engineer the mind reverseWhat What allows for reverse-engineering? reverseNatural Natural selection: body and mind allow for survival and reproduction 40 Awareness Awareness Example 41 Pillow Pillow Dark Lay Soft Cloud Snooze Tired Blanket Dream Doze Night Nap Bed Exhausted Snore Comfy Yawn Rest Slumber Drowsy 42 Which Which Words Were on the Previous Previous List? Down Tired Dog Lethargic Dream Fork Green Rest Microwave Sleep Coma Snooze Lake Smart 43 Which Which Words Were on the Previous Previous List? Down Tired Dog Lethargic Dream Fork Green Rest Microwave Sleep Coma Snooze Lake Smart 44 Which Which Words Were on the Previous Previous List? Down Tired Dog Lethargic Dream Fork Green Rest Microwave Sleep Coma Snooze Lake Smart 45 False Recall! False Recall! We encode words by their meaning. Two different memory strategies: diff Memor Memory: remember more words but increase false memory Explicit Explicit Theme: decrease false memory but remember remember less words. 46 Stroop Task Red Green Yellow Blue Green Red Orange Blue Red Blue Orange Red Blue Red Yellow Green Blue Orange 47 Cognitive Processes Cognitive Processes 1. What are the representations and processes What are the representations and processes that that underwrite these capacities? How are they acquired and how do they develop? How are they implemented in underlying hardware (biological or otherwise)? 48 2. 3. Philosophy Philosophy Focus Problems concerning nature of mind Focus: Problems concerning nature of mind Questions Questions Is Is the mind physical or non-physical? nonCan Can minds only exist in biological brains? What is consciousness? Method: Reasoning Deductive Deductive Inductive In 49 Philosophy: Method Philosophy: Method Deductive Deductive Reasoning Logical Logical Arguments: premises and conclusion P1: “Yale students only drink on the weekends.” P2: “Yale students are drinking.” Yale students are drinking C: “It is the weekend.” Validity Validity vs. Truth 50 Philosophy: Method Philosophy: Method Inductive Inductive Reasoning Observations, Observations, commonalities, conclusions “Yale student Mary is more intelligent than Harvard student Sarah.” “Yale student David is more intelligent than Yale st David is more intelligent than Harvard Harvard student John.” “Yale student Katie is more intelligent than Harvard student Jessica.” CONCLUSION: Yale students are more intelligent than Harvard students. 51 Psychology Psychology Focus Examines mental processes and resultant Focus: Examines mental processes and resultant behaviors behaviors Questions Questions: Are Are dreams meaningful? Do Do men and women differ in their sexual desires? Why Why do some people conform while others do not? Why are we susceptible to visual illusions? Method Method: Scientific Scientific Method 52 Psychology: Method Psychology: Method Scientific Method Method Form Form hypotheses Design an experiment Design an experiment o o o Independent and Dependent Variables Controls Between vs. Within Subject Null Null Hypothesis Subtraction Subtraction Method 53 Psychology Method Psychology Method Study: Effect of music on test performance Stud Variables: Variables: Independent: CAUSES effect o manipulated o whether or not music is played Dependent: Dependent: AFFECTED o measured o test performance Control: Control: Music Music NOT played during test 54 Psychology Method Psychology Method Between-Subjects etweenOne One group of participants has music played One One group of participants has no music played (control) WithinWithin-Subjects Same participants in both conditions o Test with music played o Test without music played withou 55 Psychology: Method Psychology: Method Null Null Hypothesis No No difference in performance between group with and and group without music played during test Subtraction Method Experimental Experimental (music) – Control (no music) = Effect 56 Neuroscience Neuroscience Focus Focus: Brain mechanisms underlying cognitive processes processes Questions: Questions: How How do neurons communicate with one another? How is knowledge instantiated in the brain? How is knowledge instantiated in the brain? What What brain areas are responsible for different cognitive processes? Method: Method: Brain activation, brain damage, neural networks, singlesingle-cell recording 57 Neuroscience: Methods Neuroscience: Methods Measuring brain activation Measuring brain activation EEG EEG PET PET fMRI fMRI Brain Brain Damage Lesions in animals Brain Brain damage in humans 58 Neuroscience: Methods Neuroscience: Methods Single Single-Cell Recording Recording Neural Neural Networks Computer software simulations Computer software simulations 59 Evolutionary Biology Evolutionary Biology Focus: pp Focus: Applies theory of natural selection to the brain and cognitive processes Questions Questions: Why Why would language have been evolutionarily beneficial in our ancient environment? Why Why do we naturally fear snakes but not guns? Method Method: Animal Animal behavior Evolutionary Evolutionary simulations 60 Linguistics Linguistics Focus Focus: Studies both cognitive processing of language, and language itself Questions Questions: What What is language? Are humans the only species that have language? Are humans the only species that have language? How How is language acquired? What What are the similarities and differences between all known known languages in the world? Method: Eclectic Eclectic 61 Linguistics: Method Linguistics: Method Experiments Experiments Computer models Computer models Language Deficits Language Deficits Brain Brain damage Language exposure Anthropological research 62 AI and Robotics AI and Robotics Focus Focus: Build computers/machines that simulate our mental processes and behaviors Questions: Can Can a machine be developed that is capable of solving real-world ealproblems? What What can machines tell us about our own intelligence and consciousness? own intelligence and consciousness? Method Method: Aim at developing machines that are indistinguishable from human beings. 63 Organization of Course Course (5 Weeks, 13 Lectures (including today) 64 Philosophy of Mind Philosophy of Mind How do you know you are not a brain in a vat? How do you know you are not brain in vat? What What is consciousness? Can computers be conscious? What What is it like to be a bat? Do Do we have free will? Is there such a thing as a soul? Is there such thing as soul? 65 Innateness, Innateness, Modularity, and the Evolution Evolution of Mind What does “innate” mean? What does innate mean? How How does natural selection work? Are our minds modular? What What does it mean for a brain process to be modular? modular? Nature Nature or Nurture? 66 Neuroscience, Neuroscience, Neuropsychology, and and Neural Networks How do thoughts perceptions and emotions evolve How do thoughts, perceptions and emotions evolve from from an amorphous blob? Do you need the brain for everything? Do you need the brain for everything? How How is the brain structured? Is there such a thing as a “Jennifer Aniston cell”? th thi “J What What methods allow us to look at the brain? brain? What What are the implications of brain disorders? disorders? 67 Visual Visual Perception and Attention How does the human visual system work? How does the human visual system work? What What is perception? How is our perception of events influenced by the brain? What is attention? How How do we know what to attend to and and what to ignore? What is selective attention? What is selective attention? 68 Infant Cognition; Language Infant Cognition; Language Do babies come into the world as blank slate? Do babies come into the world as a blank slate? Why Why study development? How does depth perception develop? Do Do infants go through a predictable set of stages? stages? 69 Infant Cognition; Language Infant Cognition; Language What do all languages share? What do all languages share? How How does language develop? Wh What components of language might be innate? Do Do other species have language? 70 Concepts and Memory Concepts and Memory What is the function of memory? What is the function of memory? What What are different types of memory? How and what information gets transferred from inf tr fr shortshort-term memory and long-term memory? longWh What strategies can help you remember information and process information more deeply? Wh What is a concept and how are concepts instantiated in the brain? 71 Mental Mental Imagery, Reasoning, and and Problem Solving What are the principles according to which we What are the principles according to which we reason reason and make decisions? How does logic differ from intuition? How does logic differ from intuition? How How does deductive reasoning differ from inductive reasoning? What What are some built-in biases in reasoning? builtWhat What is expertise? Does imagery and perception rely on the Does imagery and perception rely on the same neural machinery? 72 Human Human Intelligence and Creativity Creativity What is intelligence? What is intelligence? What What does IQ mean? What is creativity? Wh How How is creativity measured? What What is the relationship between Intelligence and creativity? Intelligence and creativity? What What are creative people like? How should gifted students be identified? 73 Artificial Artificial Intelligence and Robots Robots What’s the difference between human intelligence What the difference between human intelligence and and robot intelligence? What is the Turing test? What is the Turing test? How How is knowledge represented in computers? Can a computer chess expert beat a human chess expert? Wh What is fuzzy logic? What What are robots capable of? Will Will robots ever take over the world? 74 Emotions, Emotions, Morality, and Religion Religion What is emotional intelligence? What is emotional intelligence? Is Is life possible without emotions? What does it take to be happy? Wh What What makes something funny? Why Why can’t we tickle ourselves? Why fear and phobias? Why fear and phobias? How How did altruism evolve? 75 Emotions, Emotions, Morality, and Religion Religion What would happen if we were attacked by What would happen if we were attacked by hostile hostile aliens? Are there universals of moral judgment? Are there universals of moral judgment? Why Why isn’t religion in most psychology textbooks? What What is the function of religion? 76 Social Social Cognition; Love and Sex Sex How do we infer the intentions of others? How do we infer the intentions of others? What What is joint attention? What are mirror neurons? Wh Why Why did theory of mind evolve? Why Why are eyes important? What is the autistic brain What is the autistic brain like? like? 77 Social Social Cognition; Love and Sex Sex How does the male brain differ from the female How does the male brain differ from the female brain? brain? In what ways do male sexual preferences differ In what ways do male sexual preferences differ from from female sexual preferences? Wh What traits do people look for for in a mate? What’s What’s the optimal strategy to find a mate? find mate? Why Why do fools fall in love? 78 The Meanings of Life The Meanings of Life What is the meaning of life? What is the meaning of life? Why Why did art, music, and fiction evolve? How practical is cognitive science? Why Why did humor evolve? What’s What’s the big picture? 79 Next Time Next Time Philosophy of Mind and Computation of Mind and Computation Special Guest Lecturer: Dr. Dr. Elliot Samuel Paul 80 ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/28/2010 for the course CGSC 110 taught by Professor Brianscholl during the Fall '09 term at Yale.

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