10-05 Intro to Cog Sci Lecture 10

10-05 Intro to Cog Sci Lecture 10 - Introduction to...

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Introduction to Cognitive Science Lecture 10: 10/5/09 Midterm Exam - Both lectures and readings will be covered but 95% or more will be from lecture material - Readings up through Jackendoff - Several questions about readings that weren’t gone over in class (but only the main points) - Format: 2 types – 50% are multiple choice (Ex. Which is least likely to be modular: face recognition, reading words, making decisions, seeing motion); 50% are short answer (Ex. What is instinct blindness?) o 14 multiple choice o 16 short answer (2 Turing Machine problems) - General advice: o 1) More likely to ask about material that a lot of time was spent on and what Scholl was excited about (bee waggle dance, modularity) o 2) Look through the slides (as if you were making up the exam) - Various terms: informational encapsulation, lack of access, formal system, heritability - Formal system: what are the 4 parts of the formal system (tokens, start state, allowable ‘moves’, goal) - “We spent a bunch of time talking about x. Why?” o Why did we play the 15 game? Extra TM #6 - Detects palindromes Piagetian Methodology Out of sight, out of mind ? – Infants were thought to lack even the most basic of adults’ beliefs about objects Historical Methods – tasks which required object manipulation E.g. The A-not-B error Take a young infant and you take some toy and hide it under cloth A. the infant will reach for it. Repeat several views. Now, hide it under cloth B. infants reach under cloth A. This was the paradigmatic case suggesting to Piaget that infants are stupid. This suggested to Piaget that infants did not have the concept of object permanence and thought that the reaching behavior towards A was a signal that infants believe reaching causes object to appear. But, there are interesting subtleties…these sorts of tasks involve both cognition and also reaching and inhibiting of behaviors. Cognitive and motor development are happening at the same time and much of the A-not-B error has to do with motor control and the ability to update motor programs. We’ll look at the same question using different methods. Learning Generalizations I should also point out hat it would be a mistake to call it an error in the first place. One of the most recent theories is that infants are biased to learn from adults – i.e. their infant brains are sensitive to fact that adults will try to teach them about the world. This made researchers interested in A-not-B error, because this is a highly interactive experiment that may be a signal to the infant that you’re trying to teach them something and when you show them over and over that the object is under location A, he may assume you’re
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10-05 Intro to Cog Sci Lecture 10 - Introduction to...

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