Fischer_Lecture_Complete Edit

Fischer_Lecture_Complete Edit - Robert (Bob) Fischer...

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Unformatted text preview: Robert (Bob) Fischer Department of Plant & Microbial Biology Room 231 Koshland Hal Office Hours, 2084 VLSB MWF (9-10 AM) Email: rfischer@calmail.berkeley.edu Lecture file (including filed in drawings) posted on bspace ( htps:/bspace.berkeley.edu/ ) Assigned focused readings in Campbel support the lectures. Please answer questions at the end of each topic. Answers are in the back of the text book. Exam is on material presented in lecture. Genetics and Molecular Biology - Tools to study the information that creates and sustains life Deoxyribonucleic Acid Chapter 12 - The Cell Cycle How genetic information is transmitted to daughter cells Focus on Eukaryotes Cel cycle Segregation of linear chromosomes during mitosis Prokaryotes Smal circular genomes Reading in Campbel 7 th E dition: 218 229 8 th E dition: 228 237 Interphase G1 S - when chromosomes (DNA) replicate. G2 Mitosis (when chromosomes go to daughter cels) Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Cytokinesis Cell Cycle Phases Mitosis sends one set of genetic information (chromosomes) to each daughter cell Chromosomes condense during mitosis Condensed, Replicated Eukaryote Chromosome Chromatids Centromere Centromere A replicated chromosome has 2 identical chromatids. Each chromatid has 1 double-stranded DNA molecule Centromeres are the points of atachment to the apparatus that moves chromosomes S Phase - Chromosome replicates Mitosis - Duplicated chromatids separate Fine structure of a replicated metaphase chromosome Microtubule Structure Prophase = Before phase Prometaphase (just before the middle) Metaphase = middle phase Anaphase = chromosome splitting phase How chromosomes are pulled Motor proteins walk along the microtubules dragging their cargo Motor Protein Movie htp:/www.youtube.com/watch? v=4AnPVuzF7CA Telophase = end phase Cytokinesis = cell splitting phase The human eukaryote genome is big! 3.4 billion (3,400,000,000) base pairs Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes (one from Mom and one from Dad) in somatic (body) cells Male Different organisms have different number of chromosome pairs OrganismNumber of pairs of chromosomes in somatic cels Total number of chromosomes in somatic cels Humans2346 Mouse2040 Dogs3978 Drosophila48 Arabidopsis510 Yeast1632 Why have pairs of each chromosome? Compensates for defective genes. One chromosome may have a functional gene that compensates for a defective gene on the other chromosome. Generates diversity among offspring when eukaryotes sexually reproduce. E. coli bacteria (prokaryote) genome Small 4.6 million base pairs. Single, circular chromosome. Bacterial genome replicates and copies are inherited by the daughter cells The main points Eukaryotic genome is divided into chromosomes. Somatic cells have 2 copies of each chromosome. Chromosomes replicate in S-phase. Chromosomes are partitioned to daughter...
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Fischer_Lecture_Complete Edit - Robert (Bob) Fischer...

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