Bio1AL_Fa09_lab1_wksht -...

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Unformatted text preview: Chordate
Diversity
Worksheet.

Due
at
the
end
of
lab.

 
 Name

 
 
 
 
 

GSI
&
Sect
#

 
 
 
 
 
Station
#
 
 
 This
worksheet
forms
part
of
the
basis
for
the
questions
that
will
appear
on
the
lab
exam.

In
addition
you
should
 know
information
provided
by
your
GSI.

Enjoy,
but
do
not
torment,
the
live
animals.

Think
about
the
big
picture
 and
focus
on
how
these
animals
survive
and
reproduce
in
their
natural
environments.

You
do
not
need
to
 proceed
in
numerical
order
through
the
stations,
although
they
are
organized
so
that
you
can
do
so.

Mammals
 and
bird
questions
are
towards
the
end
of
the
worksheet,
and
are
located
in
2097
VSLB.

You
should
look
at
the
 marine
tank
in
both
rooms
(2095
&
2097
VLSB)
as
it
will
form
the
basis
of
station
30
on
your
lab
exam.
 
 Urochordates
(tunicate)
‐‐
make
a
drawing
(on
the
left).


 Cephalochordates
(Lancelet)
‐‐
make
a
drawing
(on
the
right).
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 FISHES
(jawless
fish:
Myxini
and
Petromyzontida

Jawed
fishes:


Chondrichthyes,
 Actinopterygii,
Sarcopterygii
[fishes
are
the
non­tetrapod
forms
of
Sarcopterygii)
The
 study
of
fishes
is
known
as
ichthyology.
 
 STATION
ONE:

FISH
DIVERSITY
 1A.

Which
of
the
extant
groups
of
fish
possess
jaws?


 
 
 
 
 
 
 1B.

What
are
two
major
difference
between
the
sharks
(Chondrichthyes)
and
the
other
jawed
fishes
 (Actinopterygii
and
the
non‐tetrapod
forms
of
Sarcopterygii)?
 
 Skeletal
difference
=

 
 
 Modification

of
the
gastrointestinal
tract
=

 
 
 
 STATION
TWO:

SKELETAL
SYSTEM
 2.
 
 
 How
 do
 the
 vertebrae
 of
 terrestrial
 tetrapods
 differ
 from
 the
 vertebrae
 of
 fish?
 
 Look
 carefully
 at
 the
 interaction
of
one
vertebra
with
the
adjacent
vertebra!
 
 
 
 
 
 
 A3
–
Fall
2009
 STATION
THREE:

FISH
JAWS
 3.

How
do
the
teeth
of
Chondrichthyes
(SHARKS)
differ
from
those
of
a
ray‐finned
fish?
 
 
 
 Name
a
vertebrate
group
that
lacks
a
jaw.


 
 
 
 STATION
FOUR:

LOCOMOTION
 4A.
What
is
a
homocercal
tail?

 
 
 
 4B.

Give
one
characteristic
of
the
shark
that
provides
buoyancy.


 
 
 
 
 4C.

How
is
the
swim
bladder
of
a
teleost
an
advantage
over
the
system
of
buoyancy
in
a
shark?
 
 
 
 
 STATION
FIVE:

SOME
FISH
ODDITIES
 5.

Which
of
the
fish
stories
pictured
seems
the
oddest
to
you?
 
 
 
 
 
 STATION
SIX:

PHOTOGRAPHIC
IMAGES
ON
THE
COMPUTER.
 
 AMPHIBIA
AND
REPTILIA
(The
study
of
ampibians
and
reptiles
(usually
excluding
the
 birds
is
known
as
herpetology.)
 STATION
ONE:

AMPHIBIAN
SKIN
 1A.

Why
is
the
skin
of
amphibians
(and
probably
most
of
the
earliest
tetrapods)
moist?
 
 
 
 
 1B.

Why
do
you
think
the
capacity
to
produce
toxins
has
evolved
in
salamanders
and
frogs?
 
 
 
 
 
 STATION
TWO:

AMPHIBIAN
SKELETON
 2A.
 
 Look
 over
 the
 bullfrog
 skeleton.
 
 Note
 the
 ilium.
 
 Would
 you
 think
 that
 proportionately
 longer
 or
 proportionately
shorter
ilia
would
be
associated
with
frogs
that
hop
and
jump
rather
than
walk?
 
 
 
 2B.

Note
the
mudpuppy
skeleton
(a
type
of
salamander).

In
what
ways
do
its
limbs
differ
from
the
frog
legs?
 
 
 
 
 A4
–
Fall
2009
 STATION
THREE:

REPTILIAN
DIVERSITY
 3A.

Read
the
selections
on
lizards
and
snakes.

List
 two
major
differences
between
the
two
suborders
(lizards
 and
snakes):
 i.
 
 
 ii.
 
 
 3B.

Read
the
article
on
the
composition
of
a
turtle
“shell”.

What
is
the
shell
made
of?
 
 
 3C.

Read
the
article
on
the
composition
of
the
armor
of
a
crocodile.

What
is
the
armor
of
a
crocodile
derived
 from?
 
 
 STATION
FOUR:

SNAKES
(Group
SERPENTES)
 
 4A.

The
ribs
of
snakes
are
not
connected
ventrally.

What
advantage
might
this
give
to
snakes?
 
 
 
 4B.

What
are
two
functions
of
snake
venom?

 i.
 
 ii.
 
 
 
 STATION
FIVE:
BODY
MORPHOLOGY
AND
HABITAT
 5A.

Can
you
guess
the
habitat
of
the
snakes
shown
here?
 i.
Green
tree
python
(photograph
only)
 
 ii.
Emerald
tree
boa
(photograph
only)
 
 iii.

Rosy
boa
 
 iv.
Ball
python
 
 
 
 5B.

Which
of
these
snakes
are
most
closely
related?

Does
this
agree
with
the
obvious
 convergence
in
form
and
 coloration
of
several
of
the
snakes?
 
 
 
 
 
 STATION
SIX:

RELATIONSHIPS
AMONG
REPTILES
 6A.

What
features
of
Archaeopteryx
are
surprisingly
like
those
of
living
birds?

(A
plaster
cast
of
Archaeopteryx
 can
be
found
in
the
display
case
south
of
the
Bioscience
Library.)
 
 
 
 What
features
are
typical
ancestral
reptilian
features?
 
 
 
 
 A5
–
Fall
2009
 STATION
SEVEN:

PHOTOGRAPHIC
IMAGES
ON
THE
COMPUTER.
 
 
 AVES
(within
the
group
Reptilia.

The
study
of
birds
is
known
as
ornithology.)
 
 STATION
1:

THERMOREGULATION
 1.

Why
do
birds
FLUFF
their
feathers
on
very
cool
mornings?
 
 
 
 
 
 STATION
TWO:

ADAPTATIONS
FOR
FLIGHT
 2.
What
does
the
pigeon
skeleton
tell
you
about
the
bird's
adaptations
for
flight?

(WRITE
SOMETHING
MORE
 THAN
"IT
HAS
WINGS")

‐‐
Note
that
reduced
teeth,
jaws,
and
skull
are
probably
not
flight
adaptations,
but
more
 properly
are
considered
feeding
specializations!

This
is
an
false
story
that
has
been
perpetuated
in
biology
texts
 for
decades.
 i.
 
 
 ii.
 
 
 iii.
 
 
 
 STATION
THREE:

WINGS
AND
FLIGHT
 3.

Don't
memorize
wing
types.

Relate
the
shape
to
the
mode
of
flight.
 
 Compare
and
contrast
the
wing
structure
of
birds
and
bats.
 
 
 
 
 How
do
the
broad
short
wings
of
hawks
relate
to
the
habitat
of
hawks?
(in
relation
to
flying)
 
 
 
 
 STATION
FOUR:

FEET
 4.

How
does
the
coot
foot
work?


 
 
 
 
 
 
 STATION
FIVE:

BILLS
 5.

Which
birds
shown
in
the
display
use
their
bills
as
sieves?

Which
use
them
as
probes?

Which
use
them
as
 nut‐crackers?
 
 
 
 
 
 
 A6
–
Fall
2009
 STATION
SIX:

NESTS
 6.
Which
partner
(male
or
female)
builds
the
bird
nest?
 
 
 
 STATION
SEVEN:

PHOTOGRAPHIC
IMAGES
ON
THE
COMPUTER.
 
 
 MAMMALIA
(The
study
of
mammals
is
known
as
mammalogy).
 
 STATION
ONE:

WHAT
IS
A
MAMMAL?
 1A.

Name
four
anatomical‐physiological
features
that
characterize
mammals:
 i
 
 ii 
 iii
 
 iv
 
 
 
 1B.

Are
all
female
mammals
able
to
lactate?
 
 
 
 
 1C.

What
are
some
functions
of
mammalian
hair?
 i.
 
 
 ii.
 
 
 iii.
 
 
 
 1D.

List
one
function
of
scent
in
mammals.
 
 
 
 STATION
TWO:
AQUATIC
ADAPTATIONS
IN
MAMMALS
 2.

The
blue
whale,
at
about
150
tons
adult
mass,
is
the
largest
animal
ever
to
have
lived
on
the
planet.

The
blue
 whale
is
a
filter
feeder
which
uses
baleen
to
“filter”
out
food.

What
is
baleen
made
of
(hint:
it's
the
same
material
 as
your
hair
and
fingernails...)?
 
 
 
 
 
 STATION
THREE:
PRIMATES
 3.

List
a
few
features
that
are
common
to
the
primates.
 
 
 
 
 
 A7
–
Fall
2009
 STATION
FOUR:
FEEDING
IN
MAMMALS
 4.

Look
at
the
teeth
in
the
skulls
of
a
carnivore
and
of
a
herbivore.

What
do
you
notice
about
the
differences
 between
the
number,
types
and
locations
of
teeth?
 
 
 
 
 
 STATION
FIVE:
CHIROPTERA
(BATS)
 5A.

Bats
have
diverged
into
numerous
feeding
types.

There
are
fruit‐eating
bats,
nectar‐feeding
bats,
insect‐ eaters,
frog‐eaters,
blood‐suckers,
fish‐eaters.

Which
bats
are
most
likely
to
have
a
highly
developed
aptitude
for
 echolocation?

Which
might
be
expected
to
have
a
highly
developed
sense
of
smell?
 
 
 
 
 5B.

How
does
an
echolocating
bat
distinguish
a
fluttering
leaf
from
a
flying
insect?
 
 
 
 
 
 5C.

Contrary
to
popular
opinion,
bats
are
very
beneficial.

Name
three
ways
that
bats
benefit
the
environment,
 and
thus,
humans.

(Think
about
what
you
see
in
the
pictures).
 i.
 
 
 
 ii
 
 
 
 iii
 
 
 
 STATION
SIX:

PHOTOGRAPHIC
IMAGES
ON
THE
COMPUTER.
 Please
 look
 at
 the
 images
 and
 see
 if
 you
 can
 find
 members
 of
 each
 group
 given
 below.
 
 No,
 you
 don’t
 need
 to
 memorize
these
groups
or
be
able
to
recognize
them.

Just
appreciate
the
diversity.
 MARSUPIALS
{1},
PRIMATES
{6‐9},
EDENTATES
(armadillos
&
anteaters,
[not
shown])
{10‐11}
 RODENTS
{12‐18},
LAGOMORPHS
(rabbits)
{19‐20},
CARNIVORES
(cats,
dogs,
raccoons,
bears)
{21‐33}
 CETACEANS
(whales)
{34},
ELEPHANTS
{35‐36},
HYRAXES
{37}
 PERISSODACTYLS
(zebras,
horses
&
rhinos
[not
shown])
{38}
 ARTIODACTYLS
(cows
&
antelopes)
{39‐48}
 A8
–
Fall
2009
 ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/28/2010 for the course BIO biology taught by Professor Meighan during the Fall '09 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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