is3_89 - O Nuclear explosions can be millions of times more...

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Radiological Emergency Management Independent Study Course 4-2 The Protective Measures section describes actions you can take to protect yourself and others from the hazards discussed in the Nuclear Detonation section. These measures include actions that can help you survive the immediate thermal and blast hazards, and guidance for minimizing your exposure to radioactive fallout. The Exposure Rate Determination section describes how to predict radiation exposure rates at various time periods after an initial radiation survey is performed. This section describes how to use a radiation survey instrument and presents a simple calculation for projecting exposure rates after a nuclear blast. NUCLEAR DETONATION In general terms, a blast or explosion is a rapid release of a large amount of energy within a limited space. There are five basic differences between nuclear and conventional blasts: O Nuclear explosions are caused by an unrestrained fission reaction whereas conventional explosions are caused by chemical reactions.
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Unformatted text preview: O Nuclear explosions can be millions of times more powerful than the largest conventional explosions. O Nuclear explosions create much higher temperatures and much brighter light flashes than conventional explosions, to the extent that skin burns and fires can occur at considerable distances. O Nuclear explosions are accompanied by highly penetrating and harmful radiation O Radioactive debris is spread by a nuclear blast, to the extent that lethal exposures can be received long after the explosion occurs. The power of a nuclear explosion is expressed in terms of its relationship to TNT due to the enormous power possessed by a single nuclear weapon, the explosive energy available is equivalent to thousands of tons (kilotons) or even millions of tons (megatons) of TNT. For example, if a nuclear explosion releases energy equivalent to 7,000 tons (6 million kilograms) of TNT, it is called a 7 kiloton blast. 7,000 Tons of TNT = 7 Kiloton Blast...
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