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is3_116 - Like some of the terrestrial sources of natural...

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Radiological Emergency Management Independent Study Course 5-8 Numbers of Atmospheric Tests Some of the radioactive debris from an atmospheric nuclear weapon test lands relatively close by. Some stays in the troposphere, the lowest layer of the atmosphere, and is carried by the wind around the world, remaining on average about a month in the air. Most debris is pushed into the stratosphere, the next layer of the atmosphere (from about 10 to 50 kilometers up) where it stays for many months, and whence it slowly descends all over the earth. These various types of fallout contain several hundred different radionuclides, but only a few contribute to human exposure. Four collectively contribute about 1 percent to the world population dose from nuclear test explosions. These are Carbon-14, Cesium-137, Zirconium-95, and Strontium-90.
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Unformatted text preview: Like some of the terrestrial sources of natural radiation, the dose from these radionuclides is generally delivered through the ingestion of the radioactivity in some food that has been exposed to the fallout. Consumer Products Some common consumer products contain materials or generate radiation which contributes to the dose to individuals, although in an extremely minor way. Luminous watches and clocks contain Tritium or Promethium-147, and by far contribute the most dose from consumer products. Many smoke detectors use alpha radiation. More than 26 million of them containing Americium-241 had been installed in the United States by the end of the 1980s. X-rays are produced inside color televisions, although modern sets emit only a tiny amount if used normally and serviced appropriately....
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