is3_123 - nuclear disintegration per second. Beta Particle:...

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Glossary G-1 RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT GLOSSARY Acute Exposure : Radiation exposure of short duration. ALARA: Acronym for keeping radiation exposure "As Low As Reasonably Achievable." Radioactive material users apply this concept in minimizing occupational and public exposure. Alpha Particle: A positively charged particle ejected spontaneously from the nuclei of some radioactive elements. It is equal in mass and charge to a helium nucleus and has low penetrating power and short range. The most energetic alpha particle from radioactive decay will generally fail to penetrate the skin. Alphas are hazardous when an alpha-emitting nuclide is introduced into the body. Atom: The smallest particle of an element that cannot be divided or broken up by chemical means. It consists of a central core called the nucleus which contains protons and neutrons. Electrons revolve in orbits in the region surrounding the nucleus. Becquerel (Bq): The radioactivity unit of the international system of units. One becquerel equals one
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Unformatted text preview: nuclear disintegration per second. Beta Particle: A charged particle emitted from a nucleus during radioactive decay. The beta particle, with a mass equal to 1/1837 that of a proton, is similar to an electron. Large amounts of beta radiation may cause skin burns, and beta emitters are harmful if they enter the body. Beta particles from radioactive decay are easily stopped by a thin sheet of metal or plastic. Blast Effect: A pulse of air in which the pressure increases sharply at the front, accompanied by winds, propagated from an explosion. Boiling Water Reactor (BWR): A type of reactor system which allows water to boil directly in the reactor core to produce steam for the turbine generator. Central Nervous System: The body's organ system that originates, sends, and receives electrical signals to control movement and action. Acute exposures of over 2,200 R cause death within hours by damage to this organ system....
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