Ch_15.1 - DNA RNA Replication Rolling-Circle Replication Theta Replication Linear Eukaryotic Replication Recombination Holliday Model of

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Unformatted text preview: DNA RNA Replication Rolling-Circle Replication Theta Replication Linear Eukaryotic Replication Recombination Holliday Model of Recombination Double Strand Break Model of Recombination RNA Transcription RNA Transcript Rho-Independent Termination RNA Processing RNAi Translation Exam Review – Be able to draw the following basic structure, do not have to draw all components of the nucleotides but do need to know if nt is single ring or double ring and how many hydrogen bonds join it to its complementary base (if DNA) 10.13 12.10, 12.13 12.21, 12.22 13.7, 13.12, 13.14 14.16 14.22 Chapter 15: Translation Beadle & Tatum experiment will not be on the exam DNA RNA Proteins transcription translation replication Central Dogma of Molecular Biology Frances Crick (1958, 1970) Proteins ¡ acts as a catalyst, speeding up chemical reactions ¡ perform their functions repeatedly, functioning as workhorses that carry out the processes of life Enzymatic Proteins Substrate (sucrose) Enzyme (sucrase) Fructose Glucose Structural Proteins ¡ Provide scaffolding and support for membranes, filaments, bone and hair ¡ All proteins are composed of amino acids Amino Acids ¡ 20 amino acids similar in structure ¡ Amino acids are comprised of a central α carbon atom attached to ¢ an amino group (NH 3 + ) ¢ a carboxyl group (COO- ) ¢ a hydrogen atom and ¢ a radical (R) group ¡ each amino acid has unique chemical properties determined by the R- group Peptide Bonds ¡ Amino acids are joined together by dehydration synthesis (i.e. water is released) ¡ The amino end of one amino acid joins to the carboxyl end of another creating a peptide bond ¡ The peptide bond is very stiff ¡ Amino acid cannot rotate around a peptide bond ¡ Allows formation of coils and other regular shapes ¡ Peptidyl transferase is the ribozyme that forms peptide bond Four Levels of Protein Structure ¡ Primary: unique sequence of amino acids ¡ Secondary: interactions between amino acids; coils and folds in the polypeptide chain ( α helix and β pleated sheets) ¡ Tertiary: interactions among various side chains (R groups) ¡ Quaternary: protein consisting of multiple polypeptide chains Amino acid subunits β pleated sheet + H 3 N Amino end α helix 1° 2° 3° 4° The Genetic Code ¡ 4 nucleotides and 3 positions = 4 3 = 64 possible codons ¢ 61 sense codons encode amino acids (AUG = start codon) ¢ 3 stop codons ( aka termination or nonsense codons) ¡ UAA, UAG, UGA The Genetic Code ¡ But there are only 20 amino acids ¢ Redundancy in the genetic code ¡ Different codons specify the same amino acid ¡ e.g. CUU, CUC, CUA, CUG all code for leucine ¢ Genetic code is said to be degenerate ¡ Amino acids may be specified by more than one codon ¡ e. g. leucine is coded using the bases CUU, CUC, CUA, CUG and UUA, UUG The Genetic Code ¡ But there are only 20 amino acids ¢ Redundancy in the genetic code ¡ Different codons specify the same amino acid ¡ e.g. CUU, CUC, CUA, CUG all code for leucine ¢...
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This note was uploaded on 01/30/2010 for the course ECOL 320 taught by Professor Weinert during the Fall '07 term at University of Arizona- Tucson.

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Ch_15.1 - DNA RNA Replication Rolling-Circle Replication Theta Replication Linear Eukaryotic Replication Recombination Holliday Model of

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