exam #2 study guide - Exam #2 Study guide Vocabulary...

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Exam #2 Study guide Vocabulary Purine : Type of nitrogenous base in DNA and RNA. Adenine and guanine are purines. Pyrimidine : Type of nitrogenous base in DNA and RNA. Cytosine, thymine and uracil are pyrimidines. Nitrogenous base : Nitrogen-containing base that is one of the three parts of a nucleotide. Nucleoside : Ribose or deoxyribose bounded to a base. Nucleotide : Repeating unit of DNA and RNA made up of a sugar, a phosphate and a base. Phosphate : A phosphorus atom attached to four oxygen atoms; one of the three components of a nucleotide. Phosphodiester : Molecule containing R-O-P-O-R, where R is a carbon-containing group, O is oxygen and P is phosphorus. Phosphodiester linkage : Phosphodiester bond connecting two nucleotides in a polynucleotide strand. Antiparallel : Refers to a characteristic of the DNA double helix in which the two polynucleotide strands run in opposite directions. Complementary : The relation between the two nucleotide strands of DNA in which each purine on one strand pairs with a specific pyrimidine on on the opposite strand (A pairs with T and G pairs with C). A-DNA : Right-handed helical structure of DNA that exists when little water is present. B-DNA : Right-handed helical structure of DNA that exists when water is abundant; the secondary structure described by Watson and Crick and probably the most common DNA structure in cells. Z-DNA : Secondary structure of DNA characterized by 12 bases per turn, a left-handed helix, and a sugar-phosphate backbone that zigzags back and forth. Methylation : A process in which methyl groups (-CH3) are added (by specific enzymes) to certain positions on the nucleotide bases. 5'-methylcytosine : Modified nucleotide, consisting of cytosine to which a methyl group has been added; predominate form of methylation in eukaryotic DNA. Hairpin : Secondary structure formed when sequences of nucleotides on the same strand are complementary and pair with each other. Inverted repeats : Sequences on the same strand that are inverted and complementary. Apurinic site : Sites in DNA from which purines have been lost by cleavage of the deoxyribose N glycosidic linkage. Depurination : Break in the covalent bond connecting a purine base to the 1'-carbon atom of deoxyribose, resulting in the loss of the purine base. Deamination : Loss of an amino group (NH2) from a base. Major groove: In DNA structure, the nigrogen and oxygen atoms of the base pairs pointing inward towards the helical axis. Minor groove : In DNA structure, the nitrogen and oxygen atoms point outwards. Translation : Process by which a protein is assembled from information contained in messenger RNA. Replication : Process by which DNA is synthesized from a single-stranded nucleotide template. E. coli
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exam #2 study guide - Exam #2 Study guide Vocabulary...

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