Session 19 Pregnancy 1 slide per page

Session 19 Pregnancy 1 slide per page - PSIO 467 October...

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PSIO 467 October 27, 2009 Randi B. Weinstein, Ph.D. Session 19: Pregnancy Outline I. Gamete transport and fertilization II. Early embryonic evelopment and development and implantation III. Endocrinology of pregnancy IV. Pregnancy disorders 1
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I. Gamete transport and fertilization A. Deposition of sperm in vagina at correct time Most fertile period is when estradiol is high from rowing follicle destined to ovulate growing follicle destined to ovulate Ovum is viable for ~ 24 hours after ovulation Sperm are viable for ~ 2-3 days in female reproductive t tract B. Transport of sperm through cervix levated tradiol imulates cervix to secrete thin Elevated estradiol stimulates cervix to secrete thin, watery mucus necessary for sperm penetration . uscular contraction of uterus and oviduct C. Muscular contraction of uterus and oviduct Increased motility aids movement of sperm Observed sperm movement is faster than can be tdf b ll tl 2 accounted for by flagellar movement alone Oviducts lined with ciliated cells that beat toward uterus
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I. Gamete transport and fertilization (cont.) D. Sperm capacitation (activation) Final maturation of sperm ccurs in female reproductive tract Occurs in female reproductive tract Enhances ability of sperm to fertilize oocyte Removal of inhibitory substances in semen (e.g., prostaglandins) Necessary for acrosomal reaction (release of proteases to clear path through zona pellucida) E. Penetration of oocyte by sperm embrane of sperm head fuses with membrane of Membrane of sperm head fuses with membrane of oocyte Stimulates completion of meiosis 3 Causes cortical reaction to block polyspermy Restores diploid state
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I. Gamete transport and fertilization (cont.) < 20 million sperm/ejaculate is considered infertile << 1% < 1% 4 Griffin Fig. 11-1 revised << 1%
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II. Early embryonic development and implantation A. Embryonic development during the first week after ovulation 39 h 42 h 49 h 3-4 d Progesterone secreted by corpus luteum primes endometrium while embryo develops in oviduct 2 5-7 d Ciliary movement draws oocyte into tube ndometrial secretions (glycogen) nourish 1 5 Porterfield Fig. 10-4 y (stimulated by estrogen) Endometrial secretions (glycogen) nourish arriving blastocyst (stimulated by progesterone) 3
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Blastocyst Fetus lastocele Blastocele Amniotic sac Embryo-derived portion of placenta 6 Hedge et al., 1987 http://open.salon.com/blog/paris/2009/01/28/intelligent_design_this
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II. Early embryonic development and implantation (cont.) B. Implantation begins 7-8 days after ovulation Decidua is highly-vascularized, maternally-derived endometrium of pregnancy ecidua Decidua Blastocyst Trophoblasts contact Some trophoblasts fuse Layer of endometrium 7 Hedge et al., Fig. 10-2
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Session 19 Pregnancy 1 slide per page - PSIO 467 October...

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