Thyroid webnotes - Thyroid Physiology PSIO467/MCB467...

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1 Thyroid Physiology PSIO467/MCB467 Session #24 Poterfield Chapter 4 Patricia B. Hoyer, PhD www.physiology.arizona.edu/PSIO467/
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2 Objectives: Thyroid Physiology 1. List 4 characteristics of the thyroid system that make it sluggish. 2. Diagram the anatomy of the thyroid gland and identify the cell types. 3. Diagram the structure of thyroid hormone as it relates to iodine content and thyroglobulin. 4. Discuss thyroid hormone synthesis. 5. List physiological effects of thyroid hormone. 6. Diagram the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis of regulation. 7. Describe the transport of thyroid hormone in blood and discuss the importance of this characteristic as relates to thyroid physiology. 8. List 5 symptoms of hypothyroidism. 9. List 5 symptoms of hyperthyroidism. 10.Distinguish between goiter caused by hyperthyroidism versus hypothyroidism.
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3 Thyroid Overview ± Thyroid gland produces thyroid hormone (T 3 /T 4 ) ± T 3 /T 4 : – regulates the rate of overall body metabolism (basal metabolic rate). – figures prominently in early infant development of the central nervous system, and growth. – chemically hydrophobic - steroid hormone-like. – most “sluggish” endocrine system. – “stable” system for maintaining constant basal metabolic rate.
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4 “Slugglish” 1. Long storage (thyroid) 2. Slow metabolic clearance 3. Long t ½ in blood 4. Long term physiological response – target tissues
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5 Outline ± Anatomy ± T 3 /T 4 ± Target Tissues ± Physiological Effects ± Regulation of Release ± Transport in Blood ± CNS Development ± Thyroid Pathophysiology
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6 Anatomy of Thyroid Gland ± Base of the larynx Contains 4 para-thyroid glands (make PTH) ± Interstitial Cells – C (Clear) cells Synthesize calcitonin ± Follicles - T 3 /T 4 synthesis Epithelial cells Basal face – circulation Apical face – lumen –L u m e n – storage – Thyroglobulin (TGB) TGB large protein, tyrosines become iodinated 3 months supply
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7 Thyroid Gland
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8 Interstitial Cells Produce calcitonin FC - Follicle (epithelial) Cells Basal face Apical face Colloid TGB Thyroglobulin TGB TGB
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Thyroid webnotes - Thyroid Physiology PSIO467/MCB467...

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