Lecture 9--Completed - w Introduction to Acids and Bases Ch...

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Ch 302 Notes r0/7 t2009 Introduction to Acids and Bases Arrhenius Theory: Only applies to aqueozs solutions. Acid: anything that produces hydrogen (Hn) ions. Base: anything that produces hydroxide (OH-) ions. HCI in Water: HClsql + Hr,rt+Clr,nt NaOH in Water: NaOH roq) ) Nalrt + OH 1"qy Bronsted-Lowry Theory: Can apply to either aqueous solutions or gas phase reactions. Acid: a proton (H*) donor. Base: a proton acceptor. HCI in Water: l-lC-Q,,op r f\zD'02 w hgdron'" /tlr- r - UHreg)+ ^ Brons\el Acid' HtO["a is the hydronium ion. Ammonia in Water: H l\ N)f\, (o$) \ f\r0u) sO u'fr, q- fub[l (lnponirr,,- ff + ^ tlt ,! H+ .'C-' \ t-\ l/ .e f,H\ \:o'- n \ t\ | L$ -r or) --) l'{301"n\+U- tt t{
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A General Acid: (1.1) H4.*r+ H2O@ +) HrO[*>+ 4,u> Acid tsase Con.iugate Conjugate ecid Base A General Base: (1.2) B@il + HzO@ +> OHro + HB["q) Base Acid Conjugate Conjugate Base Acid Equilibrium in Acid Base Theory Note that the above equations represent a competition between the two acid base pairs. 1.1: The competition is between the two bases: HzO and A-. If H2O is a much stronger base the equilibrium will lie far to the right. This will be a strong acid. If A- is a much stronger base then the equilibrium will lie to the left. This will be aweak acid. 1.2: The competition is between the two acids: HzO and HB*. If H2O is a much stronger acid the equilibrium will lie far to the right. This will be a strong base. If HB- is a much stronger acid then the equilibrium will lie to the left. This will be aweakbase.
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I Acrd Proton Negatrve tOR {*e Ff { e eg e -g g :pt Propertv K. value Equilibrium postion Equilibrium concentration of [H'] to [HA] Strength of conjugate base to that of water Strong acid Weak acid We can write an equilibrium expression for these processes: (1.3) Ko lr,o.][, ] l[A Hcl (1.4) Ku = Ht[- I f'\ exuit : Strone Acid K. is large Far to the right (1.5) Kw: Kox K6 lnel llou ) lal lrt. rFl'u- II II BJ tA Weak Acid Ka is small Far to the left [H"] << [HA]o .1 €n ? n
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Lecture 9--Completed - w Introduction to Acids and Bases Ch...

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