Lecture 1--Properties of Solutions

Lecture 1--Properties of Solutions - An Outline Solutions...

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An Outline Solutions are ever present in our world, but what are they, how do they form, and how can we describe them? Today, we will: Discuss what a solution is and learn about common examples from real life. Review the properties of water which allow it to be ‘the universal solvent’. Discuss how ionic, polar, and nonpolar substances interact with molecular water in the formation of solutions. Classify solution strength both qualitatively and quantitatively. Outline how to dilute a solution. Sketch a few thoughts on other interesting chemical properties of solutions.
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Properties of Solutions Ch 302, Fall 2009 B. A. Rowland July 14, 2009
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Definition of a Solution A solution is a mixture which is homogeneous (that is, the components of the mixture are uniformly intermingled). Solutions comprise the solute (the stuff being dissolved) and the solvent (the dissolving medium). Water solutions are termed aqueous solutions.
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Examples of Solutions Example Solution State Solute State Solvent State Air Gas Gas Gas Coca-Cola Liquid Gas Liquid Antifreeze Liquid Liquid Liquid Ocean Water Liquid Solid Liquid Hydrogen in Platinum Solid Gas Solid Steel Solid Solid Solid
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Water: The Universal Solvent Water is known as ‘the universal solvent’ for its ability to dissolve a wide array of substances. The bent geometry of the water molecule and the polar covalent O-H bonds (top right) contribute to give water a permanent dipole moment. In the bulk phase (bottom right), partial negative charges on oxygen are attracted to partial positive charges on the hydrogens. This is a stabilizing interaction.
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Solutions of Ionic Substances The figure to the right shows a clump of crystalline matter (i.e. salt) as it is being dissolved into water. The large yellow spheres represent anions while the smaller grey spheres represent cations . Note that the strong ionic interactions
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This note was uploaded on 01/30/2010 for the course GOV 312L taught by Professor Madrid during the Fall '07 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Lecture 1--Properties of Solutions - An Outline Solutions...

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