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Lecture 9--Introduction to Acids and Bases

Lecture 9--Introduction to Acids and Bases - Ch 302 Notes...

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Ch 302 Notes 10/7/2009 Introduction to Acids and Bases Arrhenius Theory : Only applies to aqueous solutions. Acid: anything that produces hydrogen (H + ) ions. Base: anything that produces hydroxide (OH - ) ions. HCl in Water: ( ) ( ) ( ) aq aq aq HCl H Cl + - + NaOH in Water: ( ) ( ) ( ) aq aq aq NaOH Na OH + - + Bronsted-Lowry Theory : Can apply to either aqueous solutions or gas phase reactions. Acid: a proton (H + ) donor. Base: a proton acceptor. HCl in Water: 3 ( ) aq H O + is the hydronium ion. Ammonia in Water:
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A General Acid: (1.1) ( ) 2 ( ) 3 ( ) ( ) aq l aq aq HA H O H O A + - + + Acid Base Conjugate Conjugate Acid Base A General Base: (1.2) ( ) 2 ( ) ( ) ( ) aq l aq aq B H O OH HB - + + + Base Acid Conjugate Conjugate Base Acid Equilibrium in Acid Base Theory Note that the above equations represent a competition between the two acid base pairs. 1.1: The competition is between the two bases: H 2 O and A - . If H 2 O is a much stronger base the equilibrium will lie far to the right. This will be a strong acid. If A - is a much stronger base then the equilibrium will lie to the left. This will be a weak acid. 1.2: The competition is between the two acids: H 2 O and HB + . If H 2 O is a much stronger acid the equilibrium will lie far to the right. This will be a strong base. If HB + is a much stronger acid then the equilibrium will lie to the left. This will be a weak base.
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We can write an equilibrium expression for these processes: (1.3) [ ] 3 a H O A K HA + -     = (1.4) [ ] b HB OH K B + -     = (1.5) K W = K a x K b Property
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