lecture 19 - Carbohydrates store fuels in amylase or...

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Carbohydrates store fuels in amylase or starch. Building blocks, ribose and deribose. Structure/protection Glycans in mammals Protective cell in bacteria. Contain info—the way you put sugars together… blood. Lektins—recognize polysachrides. Influenza virus --- RNA virus, envelope membrane. Two major proteins: hemmoglutanin and neurominidase. All cells are coded with sialic acid. Many viruses, type A and type B--- human influenza viruses. Type A has many subtypes. H is sialic acid lactin, and N is the sialidase. Common vaccine is the mixture of H2N2 (Asian) and H3N2 (HK). Vaccines. Another one is the bird H5N1, started to jump into human population. Because of mutations in the H (Hemagglutinin). Minor mutation. Sialic acid 9 carbon sugar form 6 member ring, anomeric carbon has ketone at c 2. Paper from 2004--- Human infected viruses H1N1, H and N are 2 genes, determine the activity. H1N1 seems to be not as killer now compared to world war 1. There are variance, viruses constantly mutate to invade our immune system. Picture of 3 different viruses. Influenza virus. It initially sits on the cell which is coded with sialic acid. Hemoglutanin binds to sialic acid that allows initial contact with cell, itinial binding to the cell. The virus endocytoses and the contents of the nucleotides are transported into the cytoplasm. The virus will replicate in that cell. Sometimes viruses explode the cell, but Influenza virus uses cell’s factory to make more and more virus and it will bud out of the cell, you will make new virus, 1000 of copies. Remember that cell surfaces are coded with sialic acid. Unless you do smth with sialic acid, virus will just sit on the cell surface. That’s where Neuraminidase is for, cleaves off sialic acid, allows the virus to move away
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lecture 19 - Carbohydrates store fuels in amylase or...

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