Biology 6 Chapter 11

Biology 6 Chapter 11 - Biology 6 Chapter 11 Water and Water...

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Biology 6 Chapter 11 Water and Water Pollution o Water conflicts in the Middle East : face water shortages and conflicts over access to water because they share from three major river basin o ONLY 0.024% of our planet’s water is available to us as liquid freshwater o Hydrologic cycle : movement of water in the sea, in the air, and on land, which is driven by solar energy and gravity – works well unless we overload it with slowly degradable and nondegradable wastes o Groundwater – precipitation that infiltrates the ground and percolates downward through spaces in soil, gravel, and rock – one of our most important sources of freshwater o Water table – top of the groundwater zone o Water shed (drainage basin) – land from which surface water drains into a particular river, lake, wetland, or other body of water o Aquifers – underground caverns and porous layers of sand, gravel, or bedrock through which groundwater flows o Most fresh water is used for IRRIGATION o One pound of grain-fed beef = shower for 2 years o Water shortages lead to Food shortages that lead to economic and social stresses. o Solutions to groundwater depletion? Prevention: waste less water, subsidize water conservation, limit number of wells, do not grow water-intensive crops in dry areas Control: Raise price of water to discourage waste, tax water pumped from wells near surface waters, set and enforce minimum stream flow levels, divert surface water in wet years to recharge aquifer o Advantages Dams
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Biology 6 Chapter 11 - Biology 6 Chapter 11 Water and Water...

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