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Chapter 6 Notes

Chapter 6 Notes - o Kinetic energy energy of motion heat...

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o Kinetic energy – energy of motion; heat and light are types of kinetic energy o Potential energy – stored energy; capacity to perform work; chemical energy is potential energy of molecules Ball on top of a hill, wood (fuel), gasoline, glucose o Energy can be converted from one form to another o Potential to Kinetic Energy bonds are broken o Kinetic to Potential bonds are formed o Law of Thermodynamics 1. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed; it can only change/transfer forms 2. Law of entropy states that energy conversions reduce order in the universe – heat if a form of disorder (more organization – less stable/ less organization – more stable) ex. plasma membrane: unequal distribution of hydrogen ions moves through protein channels o All chemical energy converted to kinetic energy will eventually be transformed to heat o Cells cannot transfer or transform energy with 100% efficiency; some energy always escapes from system as heat o Living systems increase the entropy of the universe; use energy to maintain order o Metabolism is the sum of an organism’s chemical reactions o Endergonic reactions: store energy; yield products rich in potential energy; form chemical bonds; energy is absorbed from surroundings – products store more energy than reactants; stored in covalent bonds of product molecules; PHOTOSYNTHESIS – low energy CO2 & H2O produce energy rich sugar molecules; absorbs free energy and is nonspontaneous ; make ATP - phosphorylation o Exergonic reactions: release energy; reactants high in energy; break chemical bonds; reactants contain more energy than those of products; CELLULAR RESPIRATION – some energy released by glucose escapes as heat, but a substantial amount is converted to ATP; proceeds with a net release of free energy and is spontaneous ; hydrolysis of ATP o CELLULAR METABOLISM: sum of all the cells endergonic and exergonic reactions
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o Energy Coupling – cell uses chemical energy to perform work by obtaining chemical
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Chapter 6 Notes - o Kinetic energy energy of motion heat...

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