Migration Lowell Sept 10 Class Notes

Migration Lowell Sept 10 Class Notes - 1 September 10 Class...

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September 10 Class Notes Migration PPD 245 Roth Bodnar The kinds of questions that are central to this topic for this class are: Why do people migrate? How do they migrate? What part do they play in the process of urbanization in American industrial cities of the 19 th and 20 th centuries? How has their experience shaped the urban world we inhabit today? Lowell – the first industrial city in the United States Investors from Boston (The Boston Associates- merchants and traders); started a textile mill near Boston in 1813. Acquired textile technology from England – Francis Lowell Merrimac River – Pawtucket Falls – 40 miles northwest of Boston bought a failed transportation canal - 1821 built canal system - 1822 SLIDE – map of canals SLIDE – photo of canals Investors owned the water rights and canal system, leased land and waterpower to factories, which came to own the water system Irish laborers built canals and mills – lived in an area called “The Acre” 1823 – mills ready to open – available labor scarce in New England, widespread immigration not started yet. Available labor was unmarried daughters of farmers from the surrounding countryside, including NH and ME to the north. 1830s – workforce in Lowell mills almost exclusively women between the ages of 15 and 30, Yankee, native-born. SLIDE SLIDE Process of migration, starting with recruitment: once one girl from a town went to Lowell, relatives and neighbors would follow – chain migration – usually the migrants knew somebody already there. 1836- pop of Lowell 17,000 – 63 percent women – huge imbalance 6,100 textile workers – 70 percent women There were male supervisors and skilled workers, typically 80 women to 2 men 1
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72 hours/week – 6 days of 12 hrs Controversial – unmarried women away from home not in accord with the norms of the time Response was a
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This note was uploaded on 01/31/2010 for the course PPD 245 taught by Professor Agarwal during the Fall '07 term at USC.

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Migration Lowell Sept 10 Class Notes - 1 September 10 Class...

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