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Drugs - Side effects o All drugs have side effects o Effect...

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Side effects o All drugs have side effects o Effect – what is it? Info is easy to find Not given the percentages Label on box Google Indications – how common is it o Information is usually hard to find o Many people take drugs unnecessarily Both of these are needed to properly evaluate the risk Counter indications o When you should not use a drug Previous conditions Drug combinations Food Natural remedies Pain relievers most common OTC drug o 2.7 billion per year (NA) o 50 billion tablets a year (NA) Salix o Genus (family) Willow Poplar Beech Wintergreen o Derived from salicylates Reverend Edward stone o Rector in church of England o Described treatment for ague in 1763 (fevers) o He used the doctrine of signatures to deem that willow bark will cure fever like quinine does o Willow bark for fever Dried bark Ground to powder Given for fever Salicin from willow bark o Henri Leroux 1829 Took an amount of willow bark and isolated salicin Salicylic acid made from salicin o Rafaelle Piria 1838 Analgesic Good for pain Antipyretic Good for fever Antinflammatory Good for swelling Salicylic acid manufacture
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o You can go from the salacin to the salicylic acid o There is also another way to synthesize the salacin from coal tar William perkin o By accident he found that he could convert coal tar to mauveine (the world first synthetic dye) Synthetic vs. Natural o You can make a compound that is either natural (occurs in nature) or synthetic (derived it from other compounds Ex. The willow bark to salacin is natural Ex. The coal tar to the salacin is synthetic Salicylic was a drug o Bitter taste o After chronic use it caused stomach irritation Felix Hoffman o Father had arthritis Took salicylic acid for pain Suffered from stomach problems o Took the salicylic acid and converted it to acetasalicylic acid (aspirin) Didn’t cause the stomach irritation anymore To do this he sued a biological assay o He exposed fish gills to the aspirin and determined if it irritated the fish A.S.A. o Benefits Pain Fever Inflammation Heart attack o Side effects Tinnitus Stomach irritations (really low incidence) Blood clotting o A.S.A. is not good for visceral pains Won’t help for surgery Prostaglandins o Local hormones Produced and used in same cell o Exist for short times o Ulf von Euler 1934 Prostaglandins biosynthesis o Arachadonic acid reacts with cyclooxygenase (enzyme) to produce prostaglandins These help with pain, fever and inflammation. o When A.S.A is taken, it inhibits this reaction so that the pain and fever stops.
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