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MIC 205 - Study Guide (Test 1)

MIC 205 - Study Guide (Test 1) - Antonio Alarcon Chemistry...

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Antonio Alarcon 8/22/07 Chemistry: Microbiology’s Building Blocks Microbe of the Day o Lactobacillus acidophilus Normal flora in the GI tract and vagina L. gasseri most common of 6 Lactobacilli in human GI tract Produce acids from lactose Relatives ferment yogurt, sourdough bread Sold as health supplements ( probiotics ) Probiotic – Health promoting Vitamin K production Reduction in fecal mutagenic enzymes Macrophage stimulation (Engulf, destroy bacteria) Bacteriocin production (Kills other bacteria) Enhanced barrier functions Methane: Covalent Bond o One C and 4 atoms share electrons to form the molecule CH 4 Hydrogen Bonds o In H 2 O the electrons are closer to the O than to the H atoms o The O is slightly negative and the H atoms are slightly positive o Attraction of a positive H to a negative O of another water molecule Chemical Reactions o Chemical reactions for or break bonds o Reactions that require energy are celled endergonic reactions o Reactions that release energy are exergonic reaction o Synthesis reactions – (Anabolism) Form new bonds o Decomposition reactions – (Catabolism, Degradation) Break bonds o Exchange reactions are part synthesis and part decomposition Most reactions are coupled Catabolism to anabolize X o Some reactions are reversible Important Biological Molecules o Inorganic molecule Lacks C Has Ionic bonds o Organic molecule Contains C Has Covalent bonds Water o Polar molecule – Unequal distribuition of charges Has hydrogen bonding Natural solvent Reactant or product in chemical reactions Photosynthesis Temperature buffer pH Scale o 0-6: Acidic
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o 7: Neutral (Water) o 8-14: Basic Naming Molecules o Functional groups are used to classify molecules An amino acid would have which function groups A polymer is a large moleucle of covalently bonded small molecules ( Monomers) Dehydration Synthesis o Dehydration removes H 2 O o Hydrolysis adds water Carbohydrate o (CH 2 O) n o Sugars and starchs – Food reserves Used as carbon/energy sources Oftern attached w/ sugars o Glycoproteins
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o DNA o Cell walls (peptidoglycan) Lipid o Long C/H chains o Paired with glycerol o Fatty acids are hydrophobic Phobic – Fearing (Water fearing) o Nonpolar molecules of C, H, O o Triglycerides (fats) = Glycerol + Fatty acids o Saturated fatty acids - (No double bonds between C atoms) are more tightly packed than unsaturated fatty acids o Unsaturated – Has double bonding on C Used w/in plasma membranes to become more fluid Phospholipids o Polar out (Head) o Non-Polar in (Tail) Cells are usually a satured/unsaturated pairing Cholesterol: A Complex Lipid o Sterols are founjd in plasma membranes of one group of bacteria Amino Acid o Amino acids have amino and carboxyl groups Peptide Bond o Amino acids from polymers called proteins o Formed from amino acids Protein Structure o Primary – Linear sequence of aa o
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