CHAPTER 10 - Chapter 10 CHAPTER 10 . A. Gender Inequality...

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Chapter 10 CHAPTER 10 Gender Inequality . THE GLOBAL CONTEXT: THE STATUS OF WOMEN AND MEN A. Defining sexism and gender 1. Sexism: the belief that innate psychological, behavioral , and/or intellectual differences exist between women and men and that these differences connote the superiority of one group and the inferiority of the other. a. Such attitudes often result in prejudice and discrimination at both the individual and institutional levels. b. Individual discrimination is reflected by the physician who will not hire a male nurse because he or she believe that women are more nurturing and empathetic and are therefore better nurses. c. Institutional discrimination—discrimination built into the fabric of society—is exemplified by the difficulty many women experience in finding employment; they may have no work history and few job skills as a consequence of living in traditionally defined marriages. 2. Discerning the basis for discrimination is often difficult because the different types of minority status may intersect. a. Double or triple (multiple) jeopardy occurs when a person is a member of 2 or more minority groups. b. Example: elderly African American and Hispanic women are more likely to receive lower wages and to work in fewer prestigious jobs than younger white women; they may also experience discrimination if they are “out” as homosexuals. 3. Gender, the social definitions and expectations associated with being female or male, should be distinguished from sex, one’s biological identity. a. In most Western cultures, we take for granted that there are two categories of gender. b. In many other societies, three and four genders have been recognized. (1) Many Polynesian cultures recognize a third gender called the mahû—individuals who take on the work roles of members of the opposite sex. (2) Other societies recognize hermaphrodites (individuals born with ambiguous genitalia) as a third gender; in the U.S., the majority of these babies have surgery to “correct” their genitalia, thus keeping them within the traditional two-gender system. B. Global Variations 1. The World Economic Forum assessed the gender gap in 115 countries by measuring the extent to which women have achieved equality within five areas: economic participation and opportunity, educational attainment, health and survival, and political empowerment. a. The United States ranked number 23 out of the 115 countries studied. Ties were possible. b. Finland and the Philippines are tied for first place on the composite measure of health and survival. c. The overall score approximates the proportion of the gender gap a country has closed—in the U.S., .7042 or 70.42%. 2. Gender inequality varies across cultures in extent or degree and in its forms. a.
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This note was uploaded on 01/31/2010 for the course SO 254 taught by Professor Simmon during the Fall '09 term at Grand Rapids Community College.

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CHAPTER 10 - Chapter 10 CHAPTER 10 . A. Gender Inequality...

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