CHAPTER 11 - Chapter 11 CHAPTER 11 Issues in Sexual...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 11 CHAPTER 11 Issues in Sexual Orientation . THE GLOBAL CONTEXT: A WORLD VIEW OF LAWS PERTAINING TO HOMOSEXUALITY A. Western Conceptions of Diversity in Sexual Orientation 1. Sexual orientation: the classification of individuals as heterosexual, bisexual, or homosexual, based on their emotional and sexual attraction, relationships, self-identity, and lifestyle. 2. Heterosexuality: the predominance of emotional and sexual attraction to persons of the other sex 3. Homosexuality: the predominance of emotional and sexual attraction to persons of the same sex 4. Bisexuality: the emotional and sexual attraction to members of both sexes. 5. Lesbigay population: collective term referring to lesbians, gays, and bisexuals (are considered part of a larger population referred to as transgendered individuals). 6. Transgendered individuals a. A range of people whose gender identities do not conform to traditional notions of masculinity and femininity. b. Transgendered individuals include not only homosexuals and bisexuals but also cross-dressers, transvestites, and transsexuals. (1) Cross-dressers are individuals, usually heterosexual men, who occasionally dress in the clothing of the other sex. (2) Transvestites are homosexual men who occasionally dress as women. (3) Transsexuals are individuals who have undergone hormone treatment and sex-reassignment surgery to change their gender identity. 7. LGBT or GLBT: term that refers collectively to lesbians, gays, bisexuals, and transgendered individuals. B. A Global View of Laws and Social Attitudes 1. Homosexual behavior has existed throughout human history and in most, perhaps all, human societies. 2. Countries vary tremendously in their treatment of same-sex sexual behavior—from intolerance and criminalization to acceptance and legal protection. a. At least 85 member states of the United Nations criminalize consensual same-sex behavior among adults. (1) In the majority of these countries, both male and female homosexuality are illegal. (2) In 38 of these countries only male homosexuality is illegal. b. Legal penalties vary for violating laws that prohibit homosexual sexual acts. (1) In many countries, homosexuality is punishable by prison sentences and/or corporal punishment, such as whipping or lashing. (2) In nine countries individuals found guilty of engaging in same-sex sexual behavior may receive the death penalty. 3. In general, countries throughout the world are moving toward increased legal protection of sexual orientation minorities, as concern about discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation has become part of a broad international human rights agenda. a. 22 countries have national laws that ban various forms of discrimination against gays, lesbians, and bisexuals....
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CHAPTER 11 - Chapter 11 CHAPTER 11 Issues in Sexual...

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