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Presentation10_061016

Presentation10_061016 - Chem 6A Presentation#10 Overview...

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Chem 6A Presentation #10 2006-10-16 1 Overview Fundamentals J: Acids & bases Strong & weak acids & bases Neutralization reactions Fundamentals K: Redox reactions Oxidation & reduction Oxidation numbers Balancing redox reactions
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2 Acids & bases Working definitions for acid and base (Arrhenius, 1884): Acid : a substance that produces H + ions (“protons”) when dissolved in water. HX H + (aq) + X (aq) Base : a substance that produces OH ions (hydroxide ions) when dissolved in water. MOH M + (aq) + OH (aq) Strong acids and bases dissociate completely into ions. Weak acids and bases dissociate slightly; most of their molecules remain intact. H 2 O H 2 O
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3 Acids & bases More general definitions for acid and base (Brønsted–Lowry): Acid : a donor of H + ions (“protons”). Base : an acceptor of H + ions (“protons”). HX + Y X + HY HX + Y X + HY +
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4 Acids & bases Strong and weak acids contain 1 or more H atoms. Monoprotic acid: CH 3 COO H (aq) H + (aq) + CH 3 COO (aq) Diprotic acid: H 2 SO 4 (aq) 2 H + (aq) + 2SO 4 2– (aq) Strong bases contain OH or O 2– ion. Soluble ionic oxides produce OH in a reaction with water: Na 2 O (s) + H 2 O ( ) 2Na + (aq) + 2OH (aq) Weak bases (e.g. ammonia) produce OH in a
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