Presentation2_060925

Presentation2_060925 - Chem 6A Presentation#2 Overview...

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Chem 6A Presentation #2 2006-09-25 1 Overview Fundamentals B: Elements and atoms Atoms: Dalton's atomic theory Models of the atom Isotopes Periodic table Chapter 1: The Quantum World Electromagnetic radiation Quanta & photons; waves & particles
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2 The components of matter Substance: either an element or a compound Element : a substance consisting of one type of atom macroscopic properties derive from type of atom properties of each element are unique Compound : 2 or more elements bonded together elements in compound are present in fixed parts by mass Mixture : contains substances that are physically intermingled composition not fixed components can be separated by physical change
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3 Observations that led to an atomic view of matter The following are considered laws : Mass conservation : Matter is neither created nor destroyed Definite composition (or constant composition) : For any compound, no matter what its source: composed of the same elements in the same parts (or fractions) by mass; e.g., calcium carbonate in chalk, marble, seashells, coral, etc. Multiple proportions: Say elements A & B combine to form different compounds B combines with a fixed amount of A in proportions of small whole numbers.
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4 Observations that led to an atomic view of matter Continuing on law of multiple proportions: Say elements A & B combine to form different compounds B combines with a fixed amount of A in proportions of small whole numbers. A A B B B Compound #1 Compound #2
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5 John Dalton's atomic theory (1808) The most important postulates of the theory, expressed in modern terms: All matter is composed of atoms.
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