Ch.12 - A 1 A 1 =1.0 A 1 A 2 =0.9 A 2 A 2 =0.8 Recessive: A...

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11/4/2009 1 ± Fitness ± Directional selection ± Maintenance of polymorphism -mutat ion - gene flow - balancing selection - genetic drift ± Quantitative trait ± Relationship between alleles: Complete dominance Intermediate (incomplete dominance/codominance) Recessive ± More than one gene: Epistasis ± ± Absolute fitness(R i ) ± Relative fitness(W i ) ± Mean fitness (w) ±
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11/4/2009 2 Gener ation Life history stage Frequencies 1 Gametes A a Gametic freq p q 2 Genotypes AA Aa aa Genotype freq (zygotes) p 2 2pq q 2 Fitness w 11 w 12 w 22 Ratio of genotypes 2 Gametes A a Ratio of gametic freq Average fitness Gametic freq Change of freqs of A ± Theory ± Advantageous alleles: common or rare alleles ± 3 cases: -dom inant Dominant: A 1 A 1 =1.0 - intermediate 1 A 1 A 2 =1.0 A 2 A 2 =0.8 Intermediate: A 1 A 1 =1.0 A 1 A 2 =0.9 A 2 A 2 =0.8 Recessive: A 1 A 1 =1.0 A 1 A 2 =0.8 A 2 A 2 =0.8 Dominant: A 1 A 1 =1.0 A 1 A 2 =1.0 A 2 A 2 =0.8
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Unformatted text preview: A 1 A 1 =1.0 A 1 A 2 =0.9 A 2 A 2 =0.8 Recessive: A 1 A 1 =1.0 A 1 A 2 =0.8 A 2 A 2 =0.8 Dominant: A 1 A 1 =1.0 A 1 A 2 =1.0 A 2 A 2 =0.8 Intermediate: A 1 A 1 =1.0 A 1 A 2 =0.9 A 2 A 2 =0.8 Recessive: A 1 A 1 =1.0 A 1 A 2 =0.8 A 2 A 2 =0.8 11/4/2009 3 Recurrant mutations Gene flow Maintenance by selection Selective neutrality Selection and mutation: Equilibrium: q^= (u/s) 1/2 Mutation-selection balance Heterozygote advantage Antagonistic selection Varying selection Frequency-dependent selection 11/4/2009 4 Sickle cell anemia Antagonistic selection Pleiotropy Temporal fluctuation Spatial variation Multiple-niche polymorphism Adaptive landscapes 11/4/2009 5 S vs 1/4N e Peak shift...
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Ch.12 - A 1 A 1 =1.0 A 1 A 2 =0.9 A 2 A 2 =0.8 Recessive: A...

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