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Unformatted text preview: AS–103 Lecture Tutorial Version: Fall 2008 William Millar AS–103 Lecture Tutorial Version: Fall 2008 INTRODUCTION: These lecture-tutorial exercises are used during the lecture sessions during the semester. Bring this document with you to class every day. If you fail to bring this document with you, you can not participate in the class discussions and learning processes. This causes the loss of the class attendance credit for the day. This document shows both additional lecture-tutorials and the arrangement of use of lecture-tutorials published in the book: Lecture-Tutorials for introductory astronomy, 2nd edition, published by Addison-Wesley. Each lecture-tutorial is a task or set of tasks related to the day’s lecture or lesson. You must complete these tasks before leaving class for the day. Note: In some cases, there are one or two additional questions in this document for a particular tutorial from Prather’s book. To complete the task, you will work with one (or two if the day’s attendance level warrants) other students in your class, as a team. I expect you to work together on the task, step by step – instep with each other – not one leading the other. I will be monitoring your progress on the task, and your interaction with each other as a team. Your team interaction is crucial to your understanding both the task and the subject material. Do not do these tutorials before coming to class – they MUST be done IN CLASS!! Your (recommended) textbook (Horizons ) is a major source for information for completing these tasks. The information may not be in a specific chapter you believe to be associated with the current topic. You will need to learn to use the index, along with other references within your textbook (and other books) in order to complete these tasks. Part of the learning process is to learn how to find information needed to complete your task. If you know how to find the information, the majority of the task is completed. If you don’t know how to find information, and your boss has to constantly find it for you, you will be looking for a new job in a short time. There is also an appendix to this document with some helpful information. Lecture Tutorial Introduction Page i TEST I The Sky Lecture Tutorial Page 1 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial I-1: Scientific Notation Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Appendix A. Description: Scientific notation is used to write, discuss and compare large and small numbers. However, for the purposes of comparison, not all the numbers have to be large or small to be written in scientific notation. 1. Identify the parts of a number written in power of ten notation: D C { { 34.562 × 105 A B Figure I-1.1: Power of ten notation. A: , B: , C: , D: 2. Write down the rule(s) that determine if a number is written in scientific notation. Ans: 3. In the following table, identify the format in which each number is written, by placing a check mark in the appropriate column. Number Decimal Power of Ten Scientific Reasoning 1 34 × 103 5.8 × 104 −2.78 × 107 3.8 × 10−20 −73.8 × 10−34 −4.08 × 10−12 4. Sort the numbers given in the table in Question 3 in order of absolute magnitude : Largest , Smallest 5. Sort the numbers given in the table in 3 in order along a number line: Most positive , Most negative 6. Compare your group’s answers with those from other groups. Discuss and come to an agreement. Lecture Tutorial I-1: Scientific Notation Page 2 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial I-2: Converting Numbers Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Appendix A. Converting numbers between scientific notation and decimal notation is something we may do only rarely in Descriptive Astronomy. However, being able to do so will greatly enhance your understanding and usefulness of scientific notation. Information about the conversion process is available in the appendix of your textbook. 1. Fill in the missing spaces in this table by converting the numbers from one notation to the other. Decimal Notation Scientific Notation Reasoning 1.5 × 107 345,000 9.3 × 105 980,000,000 3.8 × 10−6 56,800,000 −4.08 × 106 0.000 57 2. Compare your group’s answers with those from other groups. Discuss and come to an agreement. Lecture Tutorial I-2: Converting Numbers Page 3 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial I-3: The Metric System Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Appendix A. 1. Write down the name of the American and metric units of measure, with the symbol for the unit in parentheses, for the following quantities: Quantity American Unit (Symbol) Metric Unit (Symbol) Length Mass Time Force Weight Energy Temperature 2. Write down the metric prefix and symbol for each of the powers of ten listed in this table: (The first line is shown as an example.) Power of Ten = Metric Prefix 1012 = Tera Symbol T 109 = 106 = 103 = 10−2 = 10−3 = 10−6 = 10−9 = 3. Compare your group’s answers with those from other groups. Discuss and come to an agreement. Lecture Tutorial I-3: The Metric System Page 4 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial I-4: Astronomical Size IV Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Chapter 1. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “Size and Scale” Exercise 1. Tutorial I-5: Astronomical Size V Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Chapter 1. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “Size and Scale” Exercise 2. Tutorial I-6: Astronomical Size VI Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Chapter 1. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “Size and Scale” Exercise 3. Tutorial I-7: Astronomical Size VII Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Chapter 1. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “Size and Scale” Exercise 4. Lecture Tutorial I-7: Astronomical Size VII Page 5 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial I-8: Astronomical Distance I Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Chapter 1. Description: The distance to astronomical objects get to be very large numbers, very quickly. It may be easier to write the larger numbers in scientific notation. 1. Write out the definition of the astronomical unit (AU). Why was this distance unit created? Ans: 2. How many miles are there in one AU? Ans: 3. How many kilometers are there in one AU? Ans: 4. In what astronomical setting are astronomical units used? That is, where do we typically use astronomical units for making distance measurements? Why is it not used for longer distances? Ans: 5. Find the distance (for the planets, use the semi-major axis, if given) to the following: Objects Distance in AU Distance in 106 km Distance in 106 mi Sun – Mercury Sun – Venus Sun – Earth Sun – Mars Sun – Jupiter Sun – Saturn Sun – Uranus Sun – Neptune Sun – α Centauri 6. Compare your group’s answers with those from other groups. Discuss and come to an agreement. Lecture Tutorial I-8: Astronomical Distance I Page 6 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial I-9: Astronomical Distance II Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Chapter 1. Description: The distance to astronomical objects get to be very large numbers, very quickly. It may be easier to write the larger numbers in scientific notation. 1. Write out the definition for the following terms: light-second: light-minute: light-hour: light-day: 2. Fill in the following table: Unit Distance in km Distance in mi Light-Second Light-Minute Light-Hour Light-Day 3. Find the distance to the following: Objects Light-Seconds Light-Minutes Light-Hours Light-Days Sun – Mercury Sun – Venus Sun – Earth Sun – Mars Sun – Jupiter Sun – Saturn Sun – Uranus Sun – Neptune 4. Compare your group’s answers with those from other groups. Discuss and come to an agreement. Lecture Tutorial I-9: Astronomical Distance II Page 7 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial I-10: Astronomical Distance III Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Chapter 1. Description: The distance to astronomical objects get to be very large numbers, very quickly. It may be easier to write the larger numbers in scientific notation. 1. Write out the denition of the light-year (ly). Why was this distance unit created? Ans: 2. How many astronomical units are there in one ly? Ans: 3. How many kilometers are there in 1 ly? Ans: 4. How many miles are there in one ly? Ans: 5. In what astronomical setting are light-year units used? That is, where do we typically use astronomical units for making distance measurements? Ans: 6. Find the distance to the following: Objects Distance in ly Distance in AU Distance in mi Sun – Earth Sun – α Centauri Sun – Betelgeuse Sun – Center of Milky Way Milky Way – Andromeda Lecture Tutorial I-10: Astronomical Distance III Page 8 7. Given the distance to Betelgeuse in the table above, what major world event(s) were happening when the light that we see coming from Betelgeuse tonight actually left the surface of that star? Ans: 8. Compare your group’s answers with those from other groups. Discuss and come to an agreement. Lecture Tutorial I-10: Astronomical Distance III Page 9 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial I-11: Constellations Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 2-1, pages 14–15. Here is a list of descriptive items about star patterns: A) Defined by its stick figure. B) Defined by its borders. C) Has a stick figure. D) Does not have a stick figure. E) Stick figure is irrelevant. F) Has a border. G) Does not have a border. H) Border is irrelevant. I) There are a total of 88, covering the entire sky. J) There is an unknown number, covering the entire sky. K) For these, you can make-up or define your own. L) These are definable only by the International Astronomical Union. M) The International Astronomical Union does not care about these. N) Allows us to easily find other celestial objects. O) Every star in the sky belongs to one of these. P) Some stars belong to several of these. Q) Divided into two groups: Ancient and Modern. (Hint for the following two questions : Both questions have nine letters in their list.) 1. Using the letters from the list of descriptive items, make a list of all those items that can (even possibly ) be associated with constellations. Ans: 2. Using the letters from the list of descriptive items, make a list of all those items that can (even possibly ) be associated with asterisms. Ans: 3. Compare your group’s answers with those from other groups. Discuss and come to an agreement. Lecture Tutorial I-11: Constellations Page 10 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial I-12: Star Names Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 2-1, pages 15–16. Introduction: We will be using three different naming methods for the stars. 1. What is the culture (or language) of origin for most star names? Ans: 2. Look on your SC001 Equatorial Chart or your SC002 Polar Chart and make a list of ten star names: , , , , , , , , When the European star map makers needed to label the stars without names, they devised two systems which are still in use. 3. List the first five letters of the Greek alphabet by symbol and by name. Symbol Letter Name 4. Using the Appendix, find the genitive form of the following constellations. Constellation Genitive Form Orion Auriga Leo Bo¨tes o Ursa Major Lecture Tutorial I-12: Star Names Page 11 5. In the table below, place a check mark in the appropriate column to identify the star naming convention being used. Star Name Proper Name Bayer Designation Flamsteed Number Not! Betelgeuse α Orionis 58 Orionis Orion Regulus Orionis Rigel χ Aurigae H Geminis Bellatrix γ 3 Leonis m Scorpii Sirius 158 Persei HD10427 β Lyrae3 6. Consider the following conversation between two students. Student 1: “Because delta comes before epsilon, delta Orionis is brighter than epsilon Orionis.” Student 2: “I disagree. You are looking at Flamsteed designations and they have nothing to do with the star’s apparent brightness.” Do you agree or disagree with either or both of these students? Explain your reasoning. Ans: 7. Compare your group’s answers with those from other groups. Discuss and come to an agreement. Lecture Tutorial I-12: Star Names Page 12 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial I-13: Apparent Magnitude Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 2-1, pages 16-17. Here is a table showing the difference in magnitude between two hypothetical stars, Star A and Star B, related to the ratio of their brightness IA /IB , where Star A is brighter than Star B. ∆m IA /IB ∆m IA /IB 0 1.00 0.0 1.00 1 2.51 0.1 1.10 2 6.31 0.2 1.20 3 15.85 0.3 1.32 4 39.81 0.4 1.45 5 100 0.5 1.58 10 10, 000 0.6 1.74 15 1, 000, 000 0.7 1.91 20 100, 000, 000 0.8 2.09 25 10, 000, 000, 000 0.9 2.29 1. Use the table above to fill in the missing data in the table below. “Brighter?” is asking which star, Star A or Star B, appears brighter. |∆m| means to use the absolute value of the difference in the magnitudes (ignore any minus signs in the result of the subtraction). Here is the process. Find the difference in the magnitudes (watch out when subtracting with minus signs). Use the left columns for the whole part of the difference, use the right columns for the decimal part of the difference. Multiply the I ratios from the two parts to find Ib /Id , where Ib stands for the intensity of the brighter star and Id stands for the intensity of the dimmer star. Star A Star B 0 +5 −2 +3 +3 +2 +4 +1 +5 −1 2 +2.5 3. 5 +2 −1.4 3. 3 −0.7 −1.2 −1.7 Brighter? |∆m| Ib /Id +8.9 2. Compare your group’s answers with those from other groups. Discuss and come to an agreement. Lecture Tutorial I-13: Apparent Magnitude Page 13 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial I-14: Celestial Sphere Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 2-2, pp. 17–18, 20–21; Windows on Science 2-1, 2-2. Description: The celestial sphere is a model of the heavens where the Earth is stationary and the heavens rotate around the Earth. While this is not the actual physical motion (nor is it the physical structure) of the system, the model is helpful in understanding the apparent motion of the sky as observed from our backyards. 1 a 6 3 4 Earth Sun b 23.5° 5 2 Figure I-14.1: The Celestial Sphere. 1. Label the points and lines as denoted by the numbers and letters. 1: , 2: , 3: , 4: , 5: , 6: , a: , b: . 2. How long does it take for the celestial sphere to make one rotation on its axis? Ans: 3. As viewed from our backyards, in which direction does the celestial sphere rotate? Ans: 4. What is the significance of the angle shown between the circles labeled a and b? Ans: 5. In relation to the Earth, where are the north and south celestial poles located? Ans: Lecture Tutorial I-14: Celestial Sphere Page 14 6. In relation to the Earth, where is the celestial equator located? Ans: 7. In relation to the celestial poles, where is the celestial equator located? Ans: 8. What is the name of the plane containing the circle labeled a? Ans: 9. What is the name of the plane containing the circle labeled b? Ans: 10. What is the calendrical significance of the points: 3: , 4: . 5: , 6: . 11. How big is the celestial sphere? Ans: 12. Compare your group’s answers with those from other groups. Discuss and come to an agreement. Lecture Tutorial I-14: Celestial Sphere Page 15 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial I-15: Horizon Coordinate System Readings in Horizons (10thEd.): Section 2-2, page 21 has some figures using terms from the horizon coordinate system. Description: The “Bowl of Night” is how we describe the night sky as we observe it from Earth. The celestial horizon is an imaginary plane extending from our location on Earth to the celestial sphere. Based on this horizon, we can define a coordinate system which allows us to specify the location of a star or other object. 1 B g 5 A b 3 6 a 4 2 Figure I-15.1: The Horizon Coordinate System and its associated points and lines. 1. Using this list of terms, fill in the blanks to correctly label the points and lines. Lists of terms: alcumentar, altitude, azimuth, east, horizon, local meridian, nadir, north, south, west, zenith. 1: , 2: , 3: , 4: , 5: , 6: . A: , B: . α: , β: , γ: . 2. Now write out definitions for the following terms: alcumentar: altitude: azimuth: east: Lecture Tutorial I-15: Horizon Coordinate System Page 16 horizon: local meridian: nadir: north: south: west: zenith: 3. What is the main disadvantage of this coordinate system? Ans: 4. Consider the following discussion between two students. Student 1: “The local meridian is the line that runs from the North Pole, through Greenwich, England, to the South Pole.” Student 2: “I disagree. The local meridian is the line that runs from the observer’s due north, through the zenith, to due south on the horizon.” Do you agree or disagree with either or both of these students? Explain your reasoning. Ans: 5. Compare your group’s answers with those from other groups. Discuss and come to an agreement. Lecture Tutorial I-15: Horizon Coordinate System Page 17 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial I-16: A View of the Night Sky Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 3-1. Do: Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy : “Star Charts” page(s) 19–20. Lecture Tutorial I-16: A View of the Night Sky Page 18 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial I-17: The Orientation of the Celestial Sphere The Earth’s Poles Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 2-2, pp. 20–21. Note particularly the figures on the right side of page 21. Description: That part of the celestial sphere that can be seen above our horizon at any one time depends mainly on our observing position on the Earth – namely, our latitude. As we saw in the previous exercise about the Horizon Coordinate System, an observer can see half of the celestial sphere at any given time. An observer standing on one of the Earth’s poles (we will use the North Pole for the rest of this discussion, but there is very little difference at the South Pole) will see the (north) celestial pole at the zenith and the celestial equator on the horizon. Figure I-17.1 shows this view. NCP 5 1 4 3 A 2 SCP Figure I-17.1: An observer viewing the celestial sphere from the North Pole. 1. Label the points numbered 1 through 4. 1: , 2: , 3: , 4: . Or, labeling these points makes no sense when standing on the Earth’s rotational pole. (Indicate with a check mark, and explain why.) Ans: 2. Label the point numbered 5 with the correct term from the Horizon Coordinate System. Ans: Lecture Tutorial I-17: The Earth’s Poles Page 19 3. What star might you expect to see here? Ans: 4. If we needed to determine Horizon Coordinates for celestial objects as observed from the North Pole, what would you suggest as the reference point for the azimuth measurement? Ans: 5. What two important “sky lines” lines does the line labeled A represent? Ans: 6. What is the latitude of the observer when standing on the North Pole? Ans: 7. What is the altitude of Polaris (the north celestial pole) for an observer standing on the North Pole? Explain your answer. Ans: 8. What is the altitude of the celestial equator for an observer standing on the North Pole? Explain your reasoning for this answer. Ans: 9. Knowing that the daily motion of the celestial sphere is centered on Polaris, how many stars do you think this observer may see rise and set during a 24-hour period? Carefully explain your answer. Ans: 10. Compare your group’s answers with those from other groups. Discuss and come to an agreement. An observer at the North (or South) Pole will see only one half of the celestial sphere – either the northern celestial hemisphere or the southern celestial hemisphere – at all times. An observer at the North Pole will never see any star located below the celestial equator. An observer at the South Pole will never see any star located above the celestial equator. In either case, the observer can see only one hemisphere of the sky, all night long, all year long. This special case of standing on the poles creates a situation where the entire sky is circumpolar. Lecture Tutorial I-17: The Earth’s Poles Page 20 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial I-18: The Orientation of the Celestial Sphere The Earth’s Equator Now we move to view the celestial sphere from the Earth’s equator. 5 B A NCP 1 4 SCP 3 Horizon C 2 Figure I-18.1: An observer viewing the celestial sphere from the Earth’s equator. 1. Label the points numbered 1 through 4. 1: , 2: , 3: , 4: . Or, labeling these points makes no sense when standing on the Earth’s equator. (Indicate with a check mark, and explain why.) Ans: 2. Label the point numbered 5 with the correct term from the Horizon Coordinate System. Ans: 3. Label the lines lettered A through C. A: , B: , C: . 4. What is the latitude of the observer when standing on the Equator? Ans: Lecture Tutorial I-18: The Earth’s Equator Page 21 5. What is the altitude of Polaris (the north celestial pole) for an observer standing on the Equator? Explain your answer. Ans: 6. What is the altitude of the south celestial pole for an observer standing on the Equator? Explain your answer. Ans: 7. What is the altitude (on the local meridian) of the celestial equator for an observer standing on the Equator? Explain your reasoning for this answer. Ans: 8. Knowing that the daily motion of the celestial sphere is centered on Polaris (actually, on the north and south celestial poles), how many stars do you think this observer may see rise and set during a 24-hour period? Carefully explain your answer. Ans: 9. Compare your group’s answers with those from other groups. Discuss and come to an agreement. An observer at the Equator will see one half of the celestial sphere, but as the 24-hour day goes by, all the stars will be visible (ignoring the Sun, whose motion is dealt with later). In this special case, no stars are circumpolar – they all rise and set. Lecture Tutorial I-18: The Earth’s Equator Page 22 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial I-19: The Orientation of the Celestial Sphere Northern Latitudes (Grand Rapids) Now that we have seen these two special cases, we can look at a more general case, such as observing the sky from here in Grand Rapids. The latitude of Grand rapids is 43◦ N – just about halfway between the Equator and the North Pole. See Figure I-19.1. 5 B 6 7 NCP A 1 l 4 2 3 C 8 SCP Figure I-19.1: An observer viewing the celestial sphere from Grand Rapids. 1. Label the points numbered 1 through 4. 1: , 2: , 3: , 4: . Or, labeling these points makes no sense when standing in Grand Rapids. (Indicate with a check mark, and explain why.) Ans: 2. Label the point numbered 5 with the correct term from the Horizon Coordinate System. Ans: 3. Label the lines lettered A through C. A: Lecture Tutorial , B: , C: I-19: Northern Latitudes (Grand Rapids) . Page 23 4. Given that Grand Rapids is at latitude (symbol, λ) 43◦N, what is the altitude of Polaris (the north celestial pole, point 6) for an observer standing in Grand Rapids? Explain your answer. Ans: 5. What is the altitude of the south celestial pole (point 8) for an observer standing in Grand Rapids? Explain your answer. Ans: 6. Compare your group’s answers with those from other groups. Discuss and come to an agreement. 7. Given that the angle between the celestial poles and the celestial equator is defined as 90◦ and you know the altitude of Polaris, determine the altitude (on the local meridian, point 7) of the celestial equator for an observer standing in Grand Rapids. Explain your reasoning for this answer. Ans: Lecture Tutorial I-19: Northern Latitudes (Grand Rapids) Page 24 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial I-20: The Orientation of the Celestial Sphere Rules From the cases we investigated in Tutorials 17 through 19 we can state two rules for finding the orientation of the celestial sphere for the observer’s latitude. 1. For all three cases in Part I through Part III, compare the observer’s latitude with the altitude of Polaris. Write this comparison below: Part I: Latitude of Observer = , Altitude of Polaris = . Part II: Latitude of Observer = , Altitude of Polaris = Part III: Latitude of Observer = , Altitude of Polaris = . . 2. Now write a rule which gives the relationship between the observer’s latitude and the altitude of Polaris. We will call this “Rule 1.” Ans: 3. How could this fact help navigators at sea? Ans: 4. For all three cases in Part I through Part III, compare the observer’s latitude with the altitude of the celestial equator as it crosses the local meridian. Write this comparison below: Part I: Latitude of Observer = , Altitude of celestial equator = . Part II: Latitude of Observer = Part III: Latitude of Observer = , Altitude of celestial equator = , Altitude of celestial equator = . . 5. Now write a rule which gives the relationship between the observer’s latitude and the altitude of the celestial equator as it crosses the local meridian. We will call this “Rule 2.” Ans: The use of these two rules will definitely show up on the test. Make sure you know them and understand them. 6. Compare your group’s answers with those from other groups. Discuss and come to an agreement. Lecture Tutorial I-20: Rules Page 25 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial I-21: Sky Motion I – Diurnal Motion Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 2-2, pp. 20–21. Note well: As we discussed during lecture, the daily apparent motion of celestial objects is on paths that are parallel to the celestial equator. This concept, combined with an understanding of the orientation of the celestial sphere given the observer’s latitude, is key to understanding the motion of the sky (stars, constellations, Sun, Moon, etc.,) as we view it from our backyards. Do: Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy : “Position” page(s) 1–2. In addition to answering the questions in the book, please also answer the following: 1a. Where on Earth could an observer come closest to seeing an ideal horizon? Tutorial I-22: Sky Motion II – Diurnal Motion Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 2-2, pp. 20–21. Do: Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy : “Motion” page(s) 3–6. (Hint for question 8, page 4 : Compare Figures 2 and 3 in this exercise with Figure I-19.1 on page 23, and recall that the path of all apparent daily motion of any celestial object is parallel with the celestial equator.) Tutorial I-23: Sky Motion III – Seasonal Motion Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 3-1, p. 26, figure 3-1. Do: Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy : “Seasonal Stars” page(s) 7–10. Tutorial I-24: Sky Motion IV Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 3-1, p. 26, figure 3-1. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “Motion of the Sky” Exercise 1. Lecture Tutorial I-24: Sky Motion IV Page 26 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial I-25: Sky Motion V Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 3-1, p. 26, figure 3-1. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “Motion of the Sky” Exercise 2. Tutorial I-26: Sky Motion VI Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 3-1, p. 26, figure 3-1. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “Motion of the Sky” Exercise 3. Tutorial I-27: Sky Motion VII Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 3-1, p. 26, figure 3-1. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “Motion of the Sky” Exercise 4. Tutorial I-28: Sky Motion VIII Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 3-1, p. 26, figure 3-1. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “Motion of the Sky” Exercise 5. Lecture Tutorial I-28: Sky Motion VIII Page 27 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial I-29: Solar Motion I – Diurnal/Annual Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 3-1, Figure 3-1. Introduction: As the Earth rotates, the Sun appears to move across the sky from east to west, just as every other celestial object. This is the diurnal motion of the Sun – rising on the eastern horizon and setting on the western horizon. However, the Earth also revolves around the Sun, causing the seasonal changes to the stars and constellations we studied in the last tutorial. 1. How long does it take for the Earth to orbit the Sun once? Ans: 2. How many degrees are there in one full circle? Ans: 3. How many degrees does the Earth move in its orbit during one day? Ans: Now we change our point of view. Instead of thinking about the Earth moving around the Sun, think of the Sun’s motion (against the background stars) as viewed from Earth. 4. From the point of view of the Earth, how many degrees does the Sun move against the background constellations? (See Figure 1 in Prather, page 7; or Horizons, Figure 3-1, page 26. Ans: 5. From tutorial 23 above, in what direction do the constellations move, on a seasonal basis? Ans: 6. From tutorial 23 above, in what direction do the constellations move, on a daily basis? (Hint : Days add up to seasons.) Ans: Now combine these ideas about direction of motion and rate of motion. 7. How fast (degrees per day) do the constellations move, on a seasonal (or annual) basis? Ans: Lecture Tutorial I-29: Solar Motion I – Diurnal/Annual Page 28 8. Now create a general description of the seasonal/annual motion of the constellations across the sky, including the direction of the motion and the rate of the motion. Ans: 9. Consider the following conversation between two students. Student 1: “Because the apparent seasonal/annual motion of the constellations is caused by the Earth revolving around the Sun, the Sun must have the same, east to west, approximately one degree per day motion as the constellations.” Student 2: “I disagree. The Sun’s apparent motion is against the background, which is those constellations. When an object is moving against a background, the object and the background appear to move in opposite directions. So I think the Sun’s seasonal/annual motion is actually from west to east, at approximately one degree per day.” Do you agree or disagree with either or both of these students? Explain your reasoning. Ans: We see from the above discussion that the apparent motion of the constellations and the apparent motion of the Sun are both caused by the annual motion of the Earth around the Sun. Which motion is observed depends on the choice of reference object. When the Sun is the reference object (we look at the night sky at the same “wall clock” time every evening, which keeps the Sun as a reference at the same horizon coordinates), the stars appear to move (seasonal/annual basis) from east to west. If we timed our observations of the sky such that we could see the stars in the same (horizon coordinates) position every time we observe (keeping the stars as a reference), the Sun would appear to move from west to east against this background. The rate of motion for either is the same, approximately one degree per day, because the rate of motion in either case is actually the rate of motion of the Earth around the Sun. These two points of view of the same motions allow us to understand that there are two (at least) ways to keep time. The Sun’s Latin name is “Sol.” When we use the Sun as a reference, we use the word solar – meaning, “with reference to Sol.” 10. When we keep time with reference to the Sun, as with a wall clock, how would we name this method of time keeping? (Hint : Look at the title of the next tutorial.) Ans: When we are measuring against or referencing the stars, we use the Latin word sidereal – meaning, with reference to the stars. The Latin root of sidereal is the word sidereus – meaning “starry,” which itself comes from the word sides – meaning “star” or “constellation.” 11. When we keep time with reference to the star, how would we name this method of time keeping? Ans: 12. Compare your group’s answers with those from other groups. Discuss and come to an agreement. Lecture Tutorial I-29: Solar Motion I – Diurnal/Annual Page 29 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial I-30: Solar Motion II – Solar vs. Sidereal Day Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 3-1, Figure 3-1. Here are the figures we used in our discussions during lecture. Northern Hemisphere Local Meridian To Regulus Sun Regulus Orbital path of Earth Sun Local Meridian 10:10 Sidereal Clock 12:00 E Earth W South East West "Horizon View" Solar Clock Figure I-30.1: The beginning of a solar and sidereal day. Northern Hemisphere Local Meridian To Regulus Sun Orbital path of Earth Regulus Sun 10:10 Sidereal Clock Local Meridian 11:56 E Earth W South East West "Horizon View" Solar Clock Figure I-30.2: After one sidereal day. Northern Hemisphere Local Meridian To Regulus Sun Orbital path of Earth Regulus Sun Local Meridian 10:14 Sidereal Clock 12:00 E Earth W South East West "Horizon View" Solar Clock Figure I-30.3: After one solar day. Figure I-30.1 shows the beginning of the solar and sidereal days with the Sun and Regulus both on the local meridian. After one sidereal day, Regulus has come back to the local meridian, but because the Sun moves about one degree per day from west to east each day, it is now slightly to the east of the local meridian, as shown in Figure I-30.2. Lecture Tutorial I-30: Solar Motion II – Solar vs. Sidereal Day Page 30 To get the Sun back to the local meridian (one solar day) we must wait for the Earth to turn that one extra degree, as shown in Figure I-30.3. Do: Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy : “Solar vs. Sidereal Day” page(s) 11–12. After you have completed the exercise in Prather’s book, come back and answer the following questions. 1. How many minutes are there in one day? Ans: 2. How many degrees are there in one rotation? Ans: 3. How many minutes will it take for the Sun to return to the local meridian after Regulus has returned? (How many minutes between Figure I-30.2 and Figure I-30.3?) Ans: 4. Compare your group’s answers with those from other groups. Discuss and come to an agreement. Lecture Tutorial I-30: Solar Motion II – Solar vs. Sidereal Day Page 31 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial I-31: Solar Motion III – The Ecliptic Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 3-1, Figure 3-1. Do: Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy : “Ecliptic” page(s) 13–18. Tutorial I-32: Solar Motion IV – The Daily Path of the Sun Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 3-1, page 29, figure in upper right. We now turn our attention to the daily path of the Sun as it crosses the daytime sky, as observed from the northern hemisphere. Do: Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy : “Path of the Sun” page(s) 87–90. Lecture Tutorial I-32: Solar Motion IV – The Daily Path of the Sun Page 32 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial I-33: The Seasons I Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 3-1, pages 26–27, 28–29. The seasons are caused by the ability of the Sun to heat the Earth’s surface, which in turn heats the atmosphere. The Sun’s heating ability is dependent on two things: 1) the high-noon altitude of the Sun, which controls the efficiency of heating and 2) the amount of time the Sun spends above the horizon, which controls the duration of the heating. Both of these depend on the annual, north-south motion (along the local meridian) of the Sun. This part of the Sun’s annual motion is ultimately caused by the tilt of the Earth’s rotational axis. If the Earth’s axis were not tilted, there would be no annual, north-south motion, and thus no seasons. Do: Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy : “Seasons” page(s) 91–96. Tutorial I-34: The Seasons II Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 3-1, pages 26–27, 28–29. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “The Seasons” Exercise 1. Tutorial I-35: The Seasons III Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 3-1, pages 26–27, 28–29. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “The Seasons” Exercise 2. Tutorial I-36: The Seasons IV Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 3-1, pages 26–27, 28–29. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “The Seasons” Exercise 3. Lecture Tutorial I-36: The Seasons IV Page 33 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial I-37: The Seasons V Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 3-1, pages 26–27, 28–29. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “The Seasons” Exercise 4. Tutorial I-38: The Seasons VI Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 3-1, pages 26–27, 28–29. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “The Seasons” Exercise 5. Lecture Tutorial I-38: The Seasons VI Page 34 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial I-39: The Motion of the Moon Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 3-2, pages 30, 31, top half of page 33. The Moon orbits the Earth along a path (against the background stars) that is very close to the ecliptic line. It is always within 5.1◦ of the ecliptic. 1. What is the general, apparent, diurnal motion of the Moon, in the northern hemisphere, due simply to the Earth’s rotation? Ans: The Moon’s orbital period is measured in two different ways: 2. State the period name, period duration, and describe the method of using the Sun to measure the Moon’s orbital period. Ans: 3. State the period name, period duration, and describe the method of using the stars to measure the Moon’s orbital period. Ans: 4. Consider the following discussion between two students: Student 1: “Due to tidal forces, the Moon always keeps the same face toward the Earth. Therefore, the Moon does not rotate on its axis.” Student 2: “I disagree. The reason the Moon keeps the same face toward the Earth is that it rotates on its axis at a rate that precisely matches its orbital motion around the Earth.” Do you agree or disagree with either or both of these students? Explain your reasoning. Ans: Lecture Tutorial I-39: The Motion of the Moon Page 35 5. The Moon’s type of orbital motion around the Earth has a special name. What is that name? Describe this motion. Ans: A more exact, apparent, diurnal motion of the Moon is a combination of the Earth’s rotation and the Moon’s monthly, orbital motion. 6. Due to the direction of the Moon’s orbital motion around the Earth, in what direction across the sky is the Moon carried along its apparent path? Ans: 7. One lunar orbit is 360◦. Based of the sidereal period, how many degrees per day does the Moon move along its path? In which direction (E-W or W-E)? Ans: 8. Given this added daily motion, does the Moon rise earlier or later, from one day to the next? (Hint : Think about the seasonal motion of the stars.) Ans: 9. What is a lunar (orbital) node? How many are there? Where are they in relation to each other? Ans: 10. Compare your group’s answers with those from other groups. Discuss and come to an agreement. Lecture Tutorial I-39: The Motion of the Moon Page 36 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial I-40: Lunar Phases I Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 3-2, pages 31–33. Do: Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy : “The Cause of Moon Phases” page(s) 79–81. Tutorial I-41: Lunar Phases II Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 3-2, pages 31–33. Do: Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy : “Predicting Moon Phases” page(s) 83–85. Lecture Tutorial I-41: Lunar Phases II Page 37 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial I-42: Lunar Phases III Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 3-2, pages 31–33. 1. List the eight lunar phases, in order, in the blanks below. 1) , 2) , 3) , 4) , 5) , 6) , 7) , 8) . 2. In the following eight boxes, use a pencil to cover over (darken in) a portion of the Moon’s image to create a new image of the Moon for each of its phases. Draw the phases in order, starting with the new moon phase. Then, place an arrow pointing to the right or left of the Moon, showing where you would have to turn your eyes (or head) in order to see the Sun. If the Sun happens to be behind the Moon or behind your head for a particular phase, then do not draw the arrow, but write a short statement about the position of the Sun for that lunar phase. Place a checkmark in the appropriate box(es) to indicate that part of the day when the phase can be seen. Phase Name: Visibility: Sunrise Morning Noon Afternoon Evening Sunset Night Not Visible Visibility: Sunrise Phase Name: Morning Noon Afternoon Evening Sunset Night Not Visible Visibility: Sunrise Morning Noon Afternoon Evening Sunset Night Not Visible Visibility: Sunrise Phase Name: Morning Noon Afternoon Evening Sunset Night Not Visible Visibility: Morning Noon Afternoon Evening Sunset Night Not Visible Phase Name: Phase Name: Lecture Tutorial Sunrise I-42: Lunar Phases III Page 38 Phase Name: Visibility: Sunrise Morning Noon Afternoon Evening Sunset Night Not Visible Visibility: Sunrise Phase Name: Morning Noon Afternoon Evening Sunset Night Not Visible Visibility: Morning Noon Afternoon Evening Sunset Night Not Visible Phase Name: Sunrise 3. Compare your group’s answers with those from other groups. Discuss and come to an agreement. Lecture Tutorial I-42: Lunar Phases III Page 39 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial I-43: Lunar Phases IV Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 3-2, pages 31–33. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “Phases of the Moon” Exercise 1. Tutorial I-44: Lunar Phases V Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 3-2, pages 31–33. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “Phases of the Moon” Exercise 2. Tutorial I-45: Lunar Phases VI Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 3-2, pages 31–33. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “Phases of the Moon” Exercise 3. Tutorial I-46: Lunar Phases VII Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 3-2, pages 31–33. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “Phases of the Moon” Exercise 4. Tutorial I-47: Lunar Phases VIII Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 3-2, pages 31–33. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “Phases of the Moon” Exercise 5. Lecture Tutorial I-47: Lunar Phases VIII Page 40 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial I-48: Eclipses I – Shadows and Angles Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 3-2, pages 34, 35; figures 3-4, 3-6. PART I: Shadows Based on what you learned in the lecture portion, answer the following questions: 1. A shadow has two parts. Why? Ans: 2. Using a straight edge (or ruler), and starting with the images below, make drawings of the two parts of the structure of a shadow for both a near screen and a far screen. Label the two parts to the shadow structure. The near screen might be the distance to the Moon, while the far screen is well beyond that distance. Sun Earth Near Screen Sun Earth Far Screen Continue to next page... Lecture Tutorial I-48: Eclipses I – Shadows and Angles Page 41 PART II: Angular Measure Based on what you learned in the lecture portion, answer the following questions: 3. Write a brief explanation for the relationship between linear diameter, angular diameter and observer distance. Include a mention of measurement units. Ans: 4. If the Moon and the Sun have the same angular diameter, how would the ratio of their linear sizes compare to the ratio of their distances? Ans: 5. Compare your group’s answers with those from other groups. Discuss and come to an agreement. Lecture Tutorial I-48: Eclipses I – Shadows and Angles Page 42 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial I-49: Eclipses II – Lunar Eclipses Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 3-2, pages 31, 34; figure 3-5. 1. List the three types of lunar eclipses: 1) , 2) , 3) 2. List the three conditions necessary for us to observe a lunar eclipse: 1: 2: 3: 3. Describe the following list of events, occurring during a total lunar eclipse, and state what stage of the eclipse each contact represents (here, the term “Duration” means the length of time between the contacts): First Contact: Duration: Second Contact: Duration: Third Contact: Duration: Fourth Contact: 4. What condition controls the duration between second and third contact? Ans: 5. Describe the appearance of the Moon during a total lunar eclipse. Ans: 6. Compare your group’s answers with those from other groups. Discuss and come to an agreement. Lecture Tutorial I-49: Eclipses II – Lunar Eclipses Page 43 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial I-50: Eclipses III – Solar Eclipses Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 3-2, pages 35–38; figures 3-7 through 3-11. 1. List the three (basic) types of solar eclipses: 1) , 2) , 3) 2. List the three conditions necessary for us to observe a solar eclipse: 1: 2: 3: 3. Describe the following list of events, occurring during a total solar eclipse, and state what stage of the eclipse each contact represents (here, the term “Duration” means the length of time between the contacts): First Contact: Duration: Second Contact: Duration: Third Contact: Duration: Fourth Contact: 4. What condition controls the duration between second and third contact? Ans: 5. Describe the appearance of the Moon during a total solar eclipse. Ans: Lecture Tutorial I-50: Eclipses III – Solar Eclipses Page 44 6. Is there ever a time when you can view a total solar eclipse without eye protection? Ans: 7. Compare your group’s answers with those from other groups. Discuss and come to an agreement. Lecture Tutorial I-50: Eclipses III – Solar Eclipses Page 45 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial I-51: Eclipses IV – Eclipse Seasons Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 3-2, pages 38–40; figure 3-14. 1. Why do we not have an eclipse with every new moon and full moon? Ans: 2. Describe the conditions we call an eclipse season and why these conditions can bring about a lunar or solar eclipse. Ans: 3. How many eclipse seasons occur in a typical calendar year? Ans: 4. How many solar eclipses occur in a typical calendar year? Ans: 5. How many total solar eclipses occur per century? Ans: 6. How many lunar eclipses occur in a typical calendar year? Ans: 7. What is the Saros cycle? Ans: Lecture Tutorial I-51: Eclipses IV – Eclipse Seasons Page 46 8. How long is the Saros cycle? Ans: 9. Of what use is the Saros cycle, and why can it be used for this? Ans: 10. Compare your group’s answers with those from other groups. Discuss and come to an agreement. Lecture Tutorial I-51: Eclipses IV – Eclipse Seasons Page 47 TEST II History Lecture Tutorial Page 48 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial II-1: Archaeoastronomy – Ancient Observatories Introduction: We study the possible roots of astronomy because we want to understand the reason for its development, and its influence on our cultures, civilizations and societies. 1. What is archaeoastronomy? Ans: To the Avenue Heelstone Center Figure II-1.1: A schematic view of Stonehenge. 2. Figure II-1.1 shows a view of Stonehenge from above with no particular azimuthal orientation. When standing at the center, an observer can see the Sun rise directly over the Heelstone on 21 June. Given this, what is the azimuth of the Avenue? (A general compass direction is sufficient.) Ans: 3. At Stonehenge, the azimuth of winter solstice sunrise is 85◦ away from the azimuth of summer solstice sunrise. Knowing this, draw an arrow on Figure II-1.1 from the center of the monument to the direction of the winter solstice sunrise. 4. Stonehenge is located at the special latitude where the azimuth of winter solstice sunset is 180◦ away from the azimuth of summer solstice sunrise. Knowing this, draw an arrow on Figure II-1.1 from the center of the monument to the direction of the winter solstice sunset. 5. Now draw a line on Figure II-1.1 from the center of the monument in the direction of the azimuth of the summer solstice sunset. Lecture Tutorial II-1: Archaeoastronomy – Ancient Observatories Page 49 Figure II-1.2: A drawing of the summer solstice sunrise on 21 June. The Sun is just above the Heelstone. 6. Draw a line on Figure II-1.2 showing the path of the Sun as it moves away from the horizon. This does not have to be exact, just give it your best guess. 7. Compare your group’s answers with those from other groups. Discuss and come to an agreement. Lecture Tutorial II-1: Archaeoastronomy – Ancient Observatories Page 50 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial II-2: The Scientific Method Readings in Horizons (10thEd.): Window(s) on Science (page number): 2-1 (18), 2-2 (19), 3-1 (27), 3-2 (42), 4-1 (54), 4-2 (59), 4-3 (66), 4-5 (71), 7-1 (135), 7-2 (140), 8-2 (162), 9-1 (182), 9-2 (190), 11-1 (239), 11-2 (244), 12-2 (265), 13-1 (282), 13-2 (283), 14-1 (308), 14-2 (309), 15-2 (330), 16-1 (357), 16-2 (361), 17-2 (397), 18-1 (421), 18-2 (431).. This long list of the textbook’s “Windows on Science” side-boxes is a list of those related to understanding the scientific method and the process of doing science. They are gathered here as one list so we can cover the topic of the scientific method all at once. The book’s “Windows” use examples from topic spread through the book. While these examples are important, I think we can safely gather the information into one collection and reach a good understanding of the scientific method and the process of “doing science.” All of these terms are used to understand the process of science or the scientific method. The fundamental principle of science is this: Nothing can be proven true, everything can be proven false. 1. Using the textbook or other resource, write-out a definition for each of the following terms related to the scientific method: (a) Cause and Effect: (b) Confidence: (c) Correction: (d) Data: (e) Experiment (Observation): (f) Fact: (g) Hypothesis: (h) Natural Law: Lecture Tutorial II-2: The Scientific Method Page 51 (i) Paradigm: (j) Prediction: (k) Principle: (l) Pseudoscience: (m) Scientific Model: (n) Theory: 2. Using the lowercase letters in front of each term, place letters in the flow chart (shown below) boxes in such a way as to best describe the scientific method. A few have already been entered as examples and hints. e j j h 3. Compare your group’s answers with those from other groups. Discuss and come to an agreement. Lecture Tutorial II-2: The Scientific Method Page 52 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial II-3: Planetary Motion Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 3-1, pages 27 and 30. Do: Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy : “Observing Retrograde Motion” page(s) 97–98. Lecture Tutorial II-3: Planetary Motion Page 53 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial II-4: Kepler’s Laws I Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 4-4, pages 58–60. Do: Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy : “Kepler’s Second Law” page(s) 21–24. Tutorial II-5: Kepler’s Laws II Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 4-4, pages 58–60. Do: Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy : “Kepler’s Third Law” page(s) 25–27. Tutorial II-6: Kepler’s Laws III Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 4-4, pages 58–60. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “Kepler’s Laws – Orbital Motion” Exercise 1. Tutorial II-7: Kepler’s Laws IV Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 4-4, pages 58–60. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “Kepler’s Laws – Orbital Motion” Exercise 2. Lecture Tutorial II-7: Kepler’s Laws IV Page 54 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial II-8: Kepler’s Laws V Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 4-4, pages 58–60. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “Kepler’s Laws – Orbital Motion” Exercise 3. Tutorial II-9: Kepler’s Laws VI Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 4-4, pages 58–60. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “Kepler’s Laws – Orbital Motion” Exercise 4. Tutorial II-10: Kepler’s Laws VII Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 4-4, pages 58–60. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “Kepler’s Laws – Orbital Motion” Exercise 5. Lecture Tutorial II-10: Kepler’s Laws VII Page 55 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial II-11: Galileo’s Observations Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 4-5, pages 60–63. 1. Below is a list of the titles of Galileo’s observations. Write a short description of each. Mountains on the Moon: Sunspots: The Milky Way and Pleiades: Moons of Jupiter: Phases of Venus: 2. Now describe how each observation contributed to the fall of Aristotelian natural philosophy and the fall of the Ptolemaic model. Mountains on the Moon: Sunspots: The Milky Way and Pleiades: Moons of Jupiter: Phases of Venus: 3. Compare your group’s answers with those from other groups. Discuss and come to an agreement. Lecture Tutorial II-11: Galileo’s Observations Page 56 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial II-12: Gravity I Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 4-6, pages 64–72. Do: Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy : “Newton’s Law and Gravity” page(s) 29–31. Tutorial II-13: Gravity II Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 4-4, pages 58–60. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “Gravity” Exercise 1. Tutorial II-14: Gravity III Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 4-4, pages 58–60. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “Gravity” Exercise 2. Tutorial II-15: Gravity IV Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 4-4, pages 58–60. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “Gravity” Exercise 3. Tutorial II-16: Gravity V Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 4-4, pages 58–60. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “Gravity” Exercise 4. Lecture Tutorial II-16: Gravity V Page 57 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial II-17: Gravity VI Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 4-4, pages 58–60. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “Gravity” Exercise 5. Tutorial II-18: Gravity VII Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 4-4, pages 58–60. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “Gravity” Exercise 6. Tutorial II-19: Gravity VIII Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 4-4, pages 58–60. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “Gravity” Exercise 7. Lecture Tutorial II-19: Gravity VIII Page 58 TEST III Telescopes and Atoms Lecture Tutorial Page 59 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial III-1: Electromagnetic Spectrum Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 5-1, pages 78–80. Do: Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy : “Electromagnetic (EM) Spectrum of Light” page(s) 45–47. Tutorial III-2: The Earth’s Atmosphere Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 5-1, pages 78–80. Do: Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy : “Telescopes and the Earth’s Atmosphere” page(s) 49–51. Lecture Tutorial III-2: The Earth’s Atmosphere Page 60 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial III-3: Optical Telescopes Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 5-2, pages 80–90. 1. Write a short parts list for a refracting type optical telescope. Ans: 2. Write a short parts list for a Newtonian reflecting type optical telescope. Ans: A) B) C) D) Figure III-3.1: Four types of telescope focuses. 3. Match the telescope light-flow diagram in Figure III-3.1 with the name show below: Refractor: Newtonian: Cassegrain: Schmidt-Cassegrain: 4. A refracting telescope’s objective lens has a focal length of 1000 mm. I you use an eyepiece with a focal length of 10 mm and a field of view of 60◦, what will be the resulting magnification and field of view? Ans: Lecture Tutorial III-3: Optical Telescopes Page 61 5. For the telescope in the question above, how far apart should the lenses be? Ans: 6. A Newtonian telescope’s objective mirror has a focal length of 1500 mm. I you use an eyepiece with a focal length of 27 mm and a field of view of 55◦, what will be the resulting magnification and field of view? Ans: 7. Compare your group’s answers with those from other groups. Discuss and come to an agreement. Lecture Tutorial III-3: Optical Telescopes Page 62 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial III-4: Telescopes Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 5-4, 5-5, pages 92–99. Here is a list of various telescopes (the bold faced letters are for answering questions below): A) The VLA B) Arecibo C) Hale D) Hubble E) James Webb F) Gemini G) Greenbank H) CGRO I) Spitzer J) Chandra K) IRAS L) XMM-Newton M) Keck I & II N) IUE O) The LBT 1. From the list above, select those telescope which are ground-based and those which are space-based. Ground-based: Space-based: For the following questions, we use the dividing point between optical light and ultraviolet light to divide the spectrum into two halves. 2. From the list above, select those telescopes which detect (principally) long wavelengths and those which detect short wavelengths. Long wavelength: Short Wavelength: 3. From the list above, select those telescopes which detect (principally) low frequencies and those which detect high frequencies. Low frequency: High frequency: 4. From the list above, select those telescopes which detect (principally) low-energy photons and those which detect high-energy photons. Low energy: High frequency: 5. Given the number of telescopes on each side of the dividing line, what conclusion can be drawn about building telescopes? Ans: 6. What is the principal reason for using the principle of interferometry in telescopes? Ans: 7. What is the principal reason for putting non-optical telescopes is space? Ans: Lecture Tutorial III-4: Telescopes Page 63 8. What is the principal reason for putting optical telescopes is space? Ans: 9. Categorize each telescope according to its principal operating region: Radio: Infrared: Optical: Ultraviolet: X-ray: Gamma-ray: 10. Compare your group’s answers with those from other groups. Discuss and come to an agreement. Lecture Tutorial III-4: Telescopes Page 64 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial III-5: Blackbody Radiation Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 6-2, pages 107–109. Do: Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy : “Blackbody Radiation” page(s) 57–60. Tutorial III-6: Types of Spectra Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 6-3, pages 109–112. Do: Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy : “Types of Spectra” page(s) 61–62. Tutorial III-7: Light and Atoms Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Sections 6-1 and 6-2, pages 104–107. Do: Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy : “Light and Atoms” page(s) 63–67. Tutorial III-8: Stellar Spectra Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 6-3, pages 109–114. Do: Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy : “Analyzing Spectra” page(s) 69–72. Tutorial III-9: Doppler Effect I Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 6-3, pages 115–117. Do: Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy : “Doppler Shift” page(s) 73–77. Lecture Tutorial III-9: Doppler Effect I Page 65 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial III-10: Doppler Effect II Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 6-3, pages 115–117. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “Doppler Effect” Exercise 1. Tutorial III-11: Doppler Effect III Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 6-3, pages 115–117. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “Doppler Effect” Exercise 2. Tutorial III-12: Doppler Effect IV Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 6-3, pages 115–117. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “Doppler Effect” Exercise 3. Tutorial III-13: Doppler Effect V Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 6-3, pages 115–117. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “Doppler Effect” Exercise 4. Lecture Tutorial III-13: Doppler Effect V Page 66 TEST IV The Sun and Stars Lecture Tutorial Page 67 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial IV-1: Sun’s Size Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Page 125. Do: Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy : “Sun Size” page(s) 105–107. Lecture Tutorial IV-1: Sun’s Size Page 68 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial IV-2: Sun’s Atmosphere Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 7-1, pages 124–129. Here is a list of descriptive characteristics of the Sun’s atmosphere: A) The lowest level of the atmosphere. B) The highest level of the atmosphere. C) The middle level of the atmosphere. D) Has a temperature of about 6000K. E) Has a temperature of about 4500K. F) Has a temperature of at least one million kelvins. G) Is the thinnest layer of the atmosphere. H) Extends millions of miles into space. I) Contains spicules. J) Contains granules. K) Contains sunspots. L) Is also called the “surface of the Sun.” M) Contains supergranules. N) Contains filaments. O) Contains the magnetic carpet. P) The solar wind is an extension of this layer. Q) The diameter of the Sun is measured by using this layer. R) This layer is mainly responsible for the Sun’s spectrum. 1. Using this list, associate each characteristic with one of the layers of the Sun’s atmosphere. Photosphere: Chromosphere: Corona: 2. Compare your group’s answers with those from other groups. Discuss and come to an agreement. Lecture Tutorial IV-2: Sun’s Atmosphere Page 69 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial IV-3: Solar Activity Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 7-2, pages 129–135. Here is a list of descriptive characteristics of solar activity: A) Occurs with the merger of two, opposite polarity magnetic fields. B) Is linked to the presence of a loop in the magnetic field. C) Always associated in pairs. D) Composed of ionized gas trapped in a magnetic arch. E) Reverses its polarity with every cycle. F) Associated with an 11-year cycle. G) Associated with a 22-year cycle. H) May hang in the lower corona for many days. I) Explanation involves “differential rotation.” J) Explained by the “solar dynamo model.” K) Explained by the “Babcock model.” L) Also create dark filaments. M) Occur about 100–500 km above the Earth’s surface. N) Associated with solar maxima and minima. O) Places where the Sun’s magnetic field does not loop back to the surface. P) These produce violent gusts in the solar wind. Q) These burst upward in a matter of hours. R) Plotted with the “butterfly diagram.”. S) Composed mostly of protons and electrons. T) These burst out in a matter of minutes. U) These can disrupt electrical and communication systems on Earth. V) Allow for the outflow of the solar wind. W) The Zeeman effect gave us our first explanation of these. X) This may be associated with the “little ice age.” 1. Using this list, associate each characteristic with some type of effect on the Sun’s surface: Aurora: Coronal holes: Coronal mass ejections: Eruptive prominence: Flares: Maunder minimum: Lecture Tutorial IV-3: Solar Activity Page 70 Prominence: Quiescent prominence: Solar wind: Sun’s magnetic field: Sunspots: Sunspot cycle: Lecture Tutorial IV-3: Solar Activity Page 71 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial IV-4: Stellar Distance I Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 8-1, pages 146–148. Do: Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy : “Parallax and Distance” page(s) 39–41. Tutorial IV-5: Stellar Distance II Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 8-1, pages 146–148. Do: Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy : “The Parsec” page(s) 35–37. Tutorial IV-6: Stellar Distance III Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 8-1, pages 146–148. Do: Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy : “The Parsec” page(s) 35–37. Lecture Tutorial IV-6: Stellar Distance III Page 72 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial IV-7: Luminosity, Temperature and Size I Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 8-2 and 8-3, pages 148–155. Do: Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy : “Luminosity, Temperature and Size – Part I” page(s) 53–55. NOTE: Do Part I of this tutorial only!!! Tutorial IV-8: Luminosity, Temperature and Size I Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 8-2 and 8-3, pages 148–155. Do: Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy : “Apparent and Absolute Magnitudes of Stars” page(s) 33–34. Tutorial IV-9: Luminosity, Temperature and Size II Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 8-2 and 8-3, pages 148–155. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “Apparent and Absolute Magnitude” Exercise 1. Tutorial IV-10: Luminosity, Temperature and Size III Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 8-2 and 8-3, pages 148–155. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “Apparent and Absolute Magnitude” Exercise 2. Tutorial IV-11: Luminosity, Temperature and Size IV Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 8-2 and 8-3, pages 148–155. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “Apparent and Absolute Magnitude” Exercise 3. Lecture Tutorial IV-11: Luminosity, Temperature and Size IV Page 73 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial IV-12: Luminosity, Temperature and Size V Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 8-2 and 8-3, pages 148–155. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “Apparent and Absolute Magnitude” Exercise 4. Tutorial IV-13: Luminosity, Temperature and Size VI Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 8-2 and 8-3, pages 148–155. Do: Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy : “H-R Diagram” page(s) 109–110. Tutorial IV-14: Luminosity, Temperature and Size VII Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 8-2 and 8-3, pages 148–155. Do: Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy : “Luminosity, Temperature and Size – Part II” page(s) 55–56. Tutorial IV-15: Luminosity, Temperature and Size VIII Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 8-2 and 8-3, pages 148–155. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “Luminosity of Stars” Exercise 1. Tutorial IV-16: Luminosity, Temperature and Size IX Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 8-2 and 8-3, pages 148–155. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “Luminosity of Stars” Exercise 2. Lecture Tutorial IV-16: Luminosity, Temperature and Size IX Page 74 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial IV-17: Luminosity, Temperature and Size X Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 8-2 and 8-3, pages 148–155. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “Luminosity of Stars” Exercise 3. Tutorial IV-18: Luminosity, Temperature and Size XI Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 8-2 and 8-3, pages 148–155. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “Luminosity of Stars” Exercise 4. Tutorial IV-19: Luminosity, Temperature and Size XII Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 8-2 and 8-3, pages 148–155. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “Luminosity of Stars” Exercise 5. Tutorial IV-20: Luminosity, Temperature and Size XIII Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 8-2 and 8-3, pages 148–155. Do: Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy : “Spectroscopic Parallax” page(s) 43–44. Lecture Tutorial IV-20: Luminosity, Temperature and Size XIII Page 75 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial IV-21: Stellar Mass Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 8-4, pages 156–161. Do: Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy : “Binary Stars” page(s) 113–116. Tutorial IV-22: Stellar Evolution I Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Sections 9-1, 9-3, pages 174–183, 184–185, 187–196. Do: Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy : “Star Formation and Lifetimes” page(s) 111–112. Tutorial IV-23: Stellar Evolution II Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Sections 9-1, 9-3, pages 174–183, 184–185, 187–196. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “Stellar Evolution” Exercise 1. Tutorial IV-24: Stellar Evolution III Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Sections 9-1, 9-3, pages 174–183, 184–185, 187–196. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “Stellar Evolution” Exercise 2. Tutorial IV-25: Stellar Evolution IV Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Sections 9-1, 9-3, pages 174–183, 184–185, 187–196. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “Stellar Evolution” Exercise 3. Lecture Tutorial IV-25: Stellar Evolution IV Page 76 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial IV-26: Stellar Evolution V Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Sections 9-1, 9-3, pages 174–183, 184–185, 187–196. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “Stellar Evolution” Exercise 4. Tutorial IV-27: Stellar Evolution VI Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Sections 9-1, 9-3, pages 174–183, 184–185, 187–196. Do: AS–103 Ranking Tasks : “Stellar Evolution and Lookback Time” Exercise 1. Lecture Tutorial IV-27: Stellar Evolution VI Page 77 TEST V Planets Lecture Tutorial Page 78 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial V-1: Formation of Planets Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 16-1 and 16-3, pages 356–359, 368–375. Do: Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy : “Temperature and Formation of Our Solar System” page(s) 103–104. Tutorial V-2: Planet Earth Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 17-2, pages 381–387. Do: Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy : “Earth’s Changing Surface” page(s) 99–101. Tutorial V-3: Extra-Solar Planets Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Sections 6-1, pages 359–361. Do: Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy : “Motion of Extra-Solar Planets” page(s) 117–120. Lecture Tutorial V-3: Extra-Solar Planets Page 79 TEST VI Galaxies and Cosmology Lecture Tutorial Page 80 AS–103 Descriptive Astronomy Lecture Tutorial Tutorial VI-1: Galaxies I – The Milky Way Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 12-1, pages 254–263. Do: Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy : “Milky Way Scales” page(s) 123–126. Tutorial VI-2: Galaxies II – Classification Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Section 13-1, pages 283–286. Do: Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy : “Galaxy Classification” page(s) 127–130. Tutorial VI-3: Cosmology I Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Sections 15-1, pages 326–329. Do: Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy : “Looking at Distant Objects” page(s) 131–132. Tutorial VI-4: Cosmology II Readings in Horizons (10th Ed.): Sections 15-1, pages 326–329. Do: Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy : “Expansion of the Universe” page(s) 133–134. Lecture Tutorial VI-4: Cosmology II Page 81 Appendix Here are some bits of information that may not be easy to find in other resources. Speed of light: 3 × 108 m/s = 3 × 105 km/s = 186,000 mi/s. Distance to α Centauri: 4.3 light-years. Distance to Betelgeuse: 520 light-years. Distance to Rigel: 850 light-years. Distance to the center of the Milky Way galaxy: 35,000 light-years. Distance to the Andromeda Galaxy: 2.2 million light-years. Lecture Tutorial Appendix Page 82 Constellations Note: The right ascension is given in hours. The Age column states whether the constellation is an ancient (Anc, established by Ptolemy) or modern (Mod, sixteenth century or later) constellation. Name (Alternate names) Representation Age Abbr Genitive Andromeda The Princess, The Chained Lady Anc And Andromedae Antlia (Antlia Pneumatica) The Air Pump Mod Ant Antliae Apus The Bird of Paradise Mod Aps Apodis Aquarius The Water Bearer Anc Aqr Aquarii Aquila The Eagle Anc Aql Aquilae Ara The Altar Anc Ara Arae Aries The Ram Anc Ari Arietis Auriga The Charioteer Anc Aur Aurigae Bo¨tes o The Herdsman Anc Boo Bo¨tis o Caelum (Caela Sculptoris) The Sculptor’s Chisel Mod Cae Caeli Camelopardus The Giraffe Mod Cam Camelopardalis Cancer The Crab Anc Cnc Cancri Canes Venatici The Hunting Dogs Mod CVn Canum Venaticorum Canis Major The Big Dog Anc CMa Canis Majoris Canis Minor The Little Dog Anc CMi Canis Minoris Capricornus The Sea-Goat, The Goat Anc Cap Capricorni Carina The Keel (of Argo Navis, The Ship) Anca Car Carinae Cassiopeia The Queen Anc Cas Cassiopeiae Centaurus The Centaur Anc Cen Centauri Cepheus The King, The Ethiopian King Anc Cep Cephei Cetus The Sea Monster, The Whale Anc Cet Ceti Chamaeleon The Chameleon Mod Cha Chamaeleontis Circinus The (Pair of) Compasses Mod Cir Circini Columba (Columba Noae) The Dove, Noah’s Dove Mod Col Columbae Coma Berenices Berenice’s Hair Mod Com Comae Berenices Corona Australis The Southern Crown Anc CrA Coronae Australis Corona Borealis The Northern Crown Anc CrB Coronae Borealis Continued on next page. Lecture Tutorial Appendix Page 83 Name (Alternate names) Representation Age Abbr Genitive Corvus The Crow Anc Crv Corvi Crater The Cup Anc Crt Crateris Crux The Southern Cross Mod Cru Crucis Cygnus The Swan Anc Cyg Cygni Delphinus The Dolphin Anc Del Delphini Dorado The Swordfish Mod Dor Doradus Draco The Dragon Anc Dra Draconis Equuleus The Little Horse Anc Equ Equulei Eridanus The River (Eridanus) Anc Eri Eridani Fornax The Furnace Mod For Fornacis Gemini The Twins Anc Gem Geminorum Grus The Crane Mod Gru Gruis Hercules Hercules, The Warrior Anc Her Herculis Horologium The Clock Mod Hor Horologii Hydra The (Female) Water Snake Anc Hya Hydrae Hydrus The (Male) Water Snake Mod Hyi Hydri Indus The (American) Indian Mod Ind Indi Lacerta The Lizard Mod Lac Lacertae Leo The Lion Anc Leo Leonis Leo Minor The Little Lion Mod LMi Leonis Minoris Lepus The Hare Anc Lep Leporis Libra The Scales, The Balance Anc Lib Librae Lupus The Wolf Anc Lup Lupi Lynx The Lynx Mod Lyn Lyncis Lyra The Harp, The Lyre Anc Lyr Lyrae Mensa (Mons Mensae) The Table, The Mountain Mod Men Mensae Microscopium The Microscope Mod Mic Microscopii Monoceros The Unicorn Mod Mon Monocerotis Musca The Fly Mod Mus Muscae Norma The Square Mod Nor Normae Octans The Octant Mod Oct Octantis Continued on next page. Lecture Tutorial Appendix Page 84 Name (Alternate names) Representation Age Abbr Genitive Ophiuchus The Serpent Bearer, The Doctor Anc Oph Ophiuchi Orion The Hunter Anc Ori Orionis Pavo The Peacock Mod Pav Pavonis Pegasus The Winged Horse, The Flying Horse Anc Peg Pegasi Perseus Perseus, The Hero Anc Per Persei Phoenix The Phoenix Mod Phe Phoenicis Pictor The Easel, The Painter’s Easel Mod Pic Pictoris Pisces The Fishes, The Two Fish Anc Psc Piscium Piscis Austrinus The Southern Fish Anc PsA Piscis Astrini Puppis The Stern (of Argo Navis) Moda Pup Puppis a Pyxis The Compass (of Argo Navis) Mod Pyx Pyxidis Reticulum The Net Mod Ret Reticuli Sagitta The Arrow Anc Sge Sagittae Sagittarius The Archer Anc Sgr Sagittarii Scorpius The Scorpion Anc Sco Scorpii Sculpter The Sculpter Mod Scl Sculptoris Scutum The Shield Mod Sct Scuti Serpens (Serpens Caudia) (Serpens Caput) The Serpent (Eastern Serpent) (Western Serpent) Anc Ser Serpentis Sextans The Sextant Mod Sex Sextantis Taurus The Bull Anc Tau Tauri Telescopium The Telescope Mod Tel Telescopii Triangulum The Triangle Mod Tri Trianguli Triangulum Australe The Southern Triangle Mod TrA Trianguli Australis Tucana The Toucan Mod Tuc Tucanae Ursa Major The Big Bear Anc UMa Ursae Majoris Ursa Minor The Little Bear Anc UMi Ursae Minoris Vela The Sails (of Argo, the ship) Moda Vel Velorum Virgo The Maiden, The Goddess of Justice Anc Vir Virginis b Continued on next page. Lecture Tutorial Appendix Page 85 Name (Alternate names) Representation Age Abbr Genitive Volans (Piscis Volans) The Flying Fish Mod Vol Volantis Vulpecula The Little Fox Mod Vul Vulpeculae a Carina, Puppis, Pyxis and Vela are parts of the larger constellation of Argo Navis (the ship, Argo, from the myth of Jason and the Argonauts) depicted by Claudius Ptolemy in his book, The Syntaxis or its Arabic translation, Almagest. b Serpens passes through the constellation Ophiuchus, and is therefore sometimes divided into two parts, eastern and western. Lecture Tutorial Appendix Page 86 Asterisms Here is a short list of asterisms. Name Location The Arc Ursa Major The Arrowhead Capricornus The Belt of Orion Orion The Big Dipper Ursa Major The Circlet Pisces The False Cross Carina, Vela The Great Square Pegasus The Ice Cream Cone Bo¨tes o The Keystone Hercules The Kids Auriga The Kite Bo¨tes o The Little Dipper Ursa Minor The Northern Cross Cygnus The Pointers Ursa Major The Sickle Leo The Summer Triangle Aquila, Cygnus, Lyra The Teapot Sagittarius The Virgo Triangle Arcturus, Leo, Virgo The Water Jug Aquarius The Wineglass Virgo The Winter Hexagon Gemini, Auriga, Taurus, Orion, Canis Major, Canis Minor The Winter Triangle Canis Major, Canis Minor, Orion Lecture Tutorial Appendix Page 87 ...
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