Size RankingTasks - AS103 – Descriptive Astronomy Ranking...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: AS103 – Descriptive Astronomy Ranking Tasks Fall 2008 Astronomy Ranking Task: Size & Scale Exercise #1 Description: Consider the images of different astronomical objects below (A-I). A. Pluto B. The Sun C. Jupiter F. The Solar System D. The Moon E. Nebula H. Neutron Star G. Earth I. Mars Ranking instructions: Rank the size (from largest to smallest) of the different objects (A-I). Ranking Order: Largest 1 ____ 2 ____ 3 ____ 4 _____ 5 _____ 6 _____ 7 _____ 8 _____ 9 _____ Smallest Or, all the objects have the same size. _____ (indicate with a check mark) Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Astronomy Ranking Task: Size & Scale Exercise #2 Description: Consider the images of different astronomical objects below (A-G). A. The Solar System C. Neutron Star B. Globular Cluster D. Andromeda Galaxy E. The Sun F. Nebula G. Galaxy Cluster Ranking instructions: Rank the size (from largest to smallest) of the different objects (A-G). Ranking Order: Largest 1 ____ 2 ____ 3 ____ 4 _____ 5 _____ 6 _____ 7 _____ Smallest Or, all the objects have the same size. _____ (indicate with a check mark) Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Astronomy Ranking Task: Size & Scale Exercise #3 Description: Consider the list of different astronomical objects provided below (A-J). A. B. C. D. E. Jupiter The Sun Spiral Galaxy Neutron star White dwarf F. G. H. I. J. Black Hole Giant star Nebula - Cloud of gas and dust Galaxy Cluster Globular Cluster Ranking instructions: Rank the size (from largest to smallest) of the different objects (A-J). Ranking Order: Largest 1 ____ 2 ____ 3 ____ 4 _____ 5 _____ 6 _____ 7 _____ 8 _____ 9 _____ 10 _____ Smallest Or, all the objects have the same size. _____ (indicate with a check mark) Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Astronomy Ranking Task: Size & Scale Exercise #4 Description: Consider the list of different astronomical objects provided below (A-G). A. B. C. D. E. Jupiter Globular Cluster Spiral Galaxy Neutron star White dwarf F. Black Hole G. Galaxy Cluster Ranking instructions: Rank the Mass (from largest to smallest) of the different objects (A-G). Ranking Order: Largest 1 ____ 2 ____ 3 ____ 4 _____ 5 _____ 6 _____ 7 _____ Smallest Or, all the objects have the same mass. _____ (indicate with a check mark) Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Exercise #1 Astronomy Ranking Task: Motion of the Sky Description: If you could see both the Sun and the other stars during the day, this is what the sky would look like looking south at noon on January 1 for an observer in the northern hemisphere. The Sun would appear in the sky next to the more distant stars in the constellation Sagittarius, (labeled constellation C). Also shown are other constellations (named and labeled A, B, D, and E) that will be visible above the horizon at this time when facing south. Ranking Instructions: Starting with how the sky would appear at sunrise (6am), rank the order that the Sun will appear next to each constellation (if at all) over the next several hours until sunset (6pm). For simplicity, refer to the constellations by letter (A, B, C, etc.) rather than the actual name. Ranking Order: Constellation next to the Sun at sunrise (6am) 1 ___ 2 ___ 3 ___ 4 ___ 5 ___ Constellation next to the Sun at sunset (6pm). Or, the Sun will appear next to the same constellation from sunrise to sunset._____ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Exercise #2 Astronomy Ranking Task: Motion of the Sky Description: If you could see both the Sun and the other stars during the day, this is what the sky would look like looking south at noon on January 1 for an observer in the northern hemisphere. The Sun would appear in the sky next to the more distant stars in the constellation Sagittarius, (labeled constellation C). Also shown are other constellations (named and labeled A, B, D, and E) that will be visible above the horizon at this time when facing south. Ranking Instructions: Rank the constellations (A - E) in the order that they would first appear to rise above the horizon on this day. Ranking Order: First to rise 1 ___ 2 ____3 ____ 4 ____ 5 ____ Last to rise Or, all the constellations would appear to rise above the horizon at the same time. ________ (indicate with check mark). Or, all the constellations are always above the horizon. _____ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Exercise #3 Astronomy Ranking Task: Motion of the Sky Description: The figure below shows the evening sky as it would appear while looking north at 9PM tonight for an observer in the northern hemisphere. Notice that Polaris, the North Star, appears fairly high in the sky – while other stars (labeled A - D) appear to slowly move counterclockwise in great circles around the North Star. Ranking Instructions: First, at the location of each star (A – D) draw a short arrow to indicate the direction that each star will appear to move for the instant shown. Next, rank the stars (A D) in the order that these stars first appear in the eastern part of the observer’s sky for the day shown. Ranking Order: First star to appear in the eastern part of sky 1 ____ 2 _____ 3 _____ 4 _____ Last to appear in the eastern sky. Or, all these stars would appear in the eastern part of the sky at the same time. ________ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Exercise #4 Astronomy Ranking Task: Motion of the Sky Description: If you could see both the Sun and the other stars during the day, this is what the sky would look like looking south at noon on January 1 for an observer in the northern hemisphere. The Sun would appear in the sky next to the more distant stars in the constellation Sagittarius, (labeled constellation C). Also shown are other constellations (named and labeled A, B, D, and E) that will be visible above the horizon at this time when facing south. Ranking Instructions: Rank the constellations (A - E) in the order that they will be located from highest in the sky to farthest below the horizon, 6 hours after the time shown. Ranking Order: Highest in sky 1 ___ 2 ____ 3 ____ 4 ____ 5 ____ Farthest below horizon. Or, all will remain at the locations shown above 6 hours later. ________ (indicate with check mark) Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Exercise #5 Astronomy Ranking Task: Motion of the Sky Description: The figure below shows the evening sky as it would appear while looking north at 9PM tonight for an observer in the northern hemisphere. Notice Polaris, the North Star, appears fairly high in the sky – while other stars (labeled A - D) appear to slowly move counterclockwise in great circles around the North Star. Ranking Instructions: First, at the location of each star (A – D) draw a short arrow to indicate the direction that each star will appear to move for the instant shown. Next, rank the stars (A – D) in order of the number of hours (from greatest to least) that each star is above the horizon during each 24 hour day. Ranking Order: Greatest number of hours above horizon 1 ____ 2 _____ 3 _____ 4 _____ Least number of hours above horizon. Or, all the stars are above the horizon the same number of hours per day. ________ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Exercise #1 Astronomy Ranking Task: The Seasons Description: The figure below shows the Earth in its nearly (but not quite) circular orbit around the Sun, and the Earth-Sun distance for each season. A. Ranking Instructions: For a person in the Northern Hemisphere, rank the Earth-Sun distance (from greatest to least) by season. (Use season names.) Ranking Order: Greatest distance 1 _______ 2 _______ 3 _______ 4 _______ Least distance Or, the Earth-Sun distance at any season is the same. ________ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ B. Ranking Instructions: For a person in the Southern Hemisphere, rank the seasons (naming the seasons) by distance from the Sun (from greatest to least). Ranking Order: Greatest distance 1 _______ 2 _______ 3 _______ 4 _______ Least distance Or, the Earth-Sun distance at any season is the same. ________ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Exercise #2 Astronomy Ranking Task: The Seasons Description: In each figure below a flashlight is shown projecting identical beams of light onto pieces of paper (A – D) inclined at various angles. A. Ranking Instructions: Rank the size of the illuminated area (from largest to smallest) on each piece of paper (A – D). Ranking Order: Largest 1 _____ 2 _____ 3 _____ 4 _____ Smallest Or, the illuminated areas are all the same size. ________ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona B. Ranking Instructions: Rank the brightness (from brightest to dimmest) of each illuminated area on the pieces of paper (A – D). Ranking Order: Brightest 1 _____ 2 _____ 3 _____ 4 _____ Dimmest Or, the areas are all the same brightness. ________ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ C. Ranking Instructions: Imagine that you placed a very sensitive thermometer against the illuminated area of each piece of paper and measured its temperature. Rank the temperature (from coolest to hottest) of each illuminated area (A – D). Ranking Order: Coolest 1 _____ 2 _____ 3 _____ 4 _____ Hottest Or, the temperatures of each illuminated area would all be the same. ________ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Exercise #3 Astronomy Ranking Task: The Seasons Description: In the figure below parallel beams of sunlight are projected through equal sized cutouts of a screen and then strike a spherical globe at locations A - D. Note that A and C are at the same “latitude” on the globe. Ranking Instructions: Rank the size (from largest to smallest) of the illuminated areas (A – D) on the globe. Ranking Order: Largest 1 _____ 2 _____ 3 _____ 4 _____ Smallest Or, each of the illuminated areas are equal. ________ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ B. Ranking Instructions: Rank the brightness (from brightest to dimmest) of each illuminated area on the globe (A – D). Ranking Order: Brightest 1 _____ 2 _____ 3 _____ 4 _____ Dimmest Or, the areas are all the same brightness. ________ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona C. Ranking Instructions: Imagine that you placed very sensitive thermometers against each illuminated area on the globe and measured its temperature. Rank the temperature (from coolest to hottest) of each illuminated area (A – D). Ranking Order: Coolest 1 _____ 2 _____ 3 _____ 4 _____ Hottest Or, the temperatures of each illuminated area would all be the same. ________ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Exercise #4 Astronomy Ranking Task: The Seasons Description: In the figure below six different locations (A - F) on Earth are shown during a particular time of the year. Note that each location is the same distance away from the equator. A. Ranking Instructions: Rank the time it takes (from longest to shortest) for each location (A – F) to complete one full rotation. Ranking Order: Longest time 1 _____ 2 _____ 3 _____ 4 _____ 5 _____ 6 _____ Shortest time Or, the time it takes each location to make one full rotation is the same. ________ (indicate with check mark). Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ B. Ranking Instructions: Rank the time (from longest to shortest) that each location spends in daylight during each 24 hour period. Ranking Order: Longest time 1 _____ 2 _____ 3 _____ 4 _____ 5 _____ 6 _____ Shortest time. Or, the time each location spends in daylight is the same. ________ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ C. Ranking Instructions: Imagine that you placed identical glasses of water at each location (A - F). Rank the highest temperature (from coolest to hottest) a glass of water would reach during a 24 hour period at each location. Ranking Order: Coolest 1 _____ 2 _____ 3 _____ 4 _____ 5 _____ 6 _____ Hottest Or, the temperature of each glass of water would be the same. ________ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Exercise #5 Astronomy Ranking Task: The Seasons Description: In the figures (A – E) below parallel beams of sunlight illuminate globes tilted at various angles. Like the Earth, the globes rotate so that each location (indicated by an X) on each globe is sometimes in sunlight and sometimes in darkness. Assume that the globes make one full rotation every 24 hours, and that the distance of each “X” above the equator is the same on each globe. A. Ranking Instructions: Rank the time (from longest to shortest) that each location spends in daylight during the 24 hour rotation period. Ranking Order: Longest time 1 _____ 2 _____ 3 _____ 4 _____ 5 _____ Shortest time Or, the time spent in daylight for each location is the same. ________ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona B. Ranking Instructions: Imagine that you placed identical glasses of water at each location indicated by an “X” for globes A - E. Rank the highest temperature (from coolest to hottest) a glass of water would reach during a 24 hour period at each location. Ranking Order: Coolest 1 _____ 2 _____ 3 _____ 4 _____ 5_____ Hottest Or, the temperature of each glass of water is the same. ________ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Exercise #1 Astronomy Ranking Task: Phases of the Moon Description: The figure below shows a “top view” of the Sun, Earth, and five different positions (A - E) of the Moon during one orbit of Earth. Note that the distances shown for the Sun to Earth and for Earth to the Moon are not drawn to scale. Ranking Instructions: Rank (from greatest to least) the amount of the Moon’s entire surface that is illuminated by sunlight for the five positions (A-E) shown. Ranking Order: Greatest 1 ____ 2 ____ 3 ____ 4 ____ 5 ____ Least Or, the amount of the entire surface of the Moon illuminated by sunlight is the same at all the positions. ____ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Exercise #2 Astronomy Ranking Task: Phases of the Moon Description: The figure below shows a “top view” of the Sun, Earth and six different positions (A - F) of the Moon during one orbit of Earth. Note that the distances shown for the Sun to Earth and for Earth to the Moon are not drawn to scale. Ranking Instructions: Rank (from greatest to least) the amount of the Moon’s illuminated surface that is visible from Earth at each of the six positions (A – F) shown. Ranking Order: Greatest 1 ___ 2 ____ 3 ____ 4 ____ 5 ____ 6 ____ Least Or, the amount of the Moon’s illuminated surface visible from Earth is the same in all positions. _____ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Exercise #3 Astronomy Ranking Task: Phases of the Moon Description: Shown below are five different phases of the Moon (A – E) as seen by an observer in the Northern Hemisphere. A B C D E Ranking Instructions: Beginning with the waxing gibbous phase of the Moon, rank the moon phases shown below in the order that the observer would see them over the next four weeks. Ranking Order: Beginning with the waxing gibbous phase 1 ___ 2 ____ 3 ___ 4 ____ 5 ____ Last phase seen. Or, all of these phases would be visible at the same time. _____ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Exercise #4 Astronomy Ranking Task: Phases of the Moon Description: In each figure below the Moon is shown in a particular phase along with the position in the sky that the Moon would have at one time during the day (or night). The dark area on each moon figure shows the unlit portion of the Moon visible from Earth at that time. Assume that sunset occurs at 6 pm and that sunrise occurs at 6 am, and the observer is located in the Northern Hemisphere. Ranking Instructions: Use the time each Moon phase (A – F) would appear as shown to rank the figures (from earliest to latest), starting from sunrise (6 am). Ranking Order: Earliest (about 6 am) 1 ___ 2 ____ 3 ____ 4 ____ 5 ____ 6 _____ Latest Or, the time of day or night are the same for all the phases shown. ________ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Exercise #5 Astronomy Ranking Task: Phases of the Moon Description: In each figure below (A – F) the Moon is shown in a particular phase along with the position in the sky that the Moon would have at one time during the day (or night). The dark areas on each moon figure show the unlit portions of the Moon visible from Earth at that time. Assume that sunset occurs at 6 pm and that sunrise occurs at 6 am. Ranking Instructions: Use the time each Moon phase (A – F) would appear as shown to rank the figures (from earliest to latest), starting from sunrise (6 am). Ranking Order: Earliest (about 6 am) 1 ____ 2 ____ 3 ____ 4 ____ 5 ____ 6 _____ Latest Or, the time of day or night are the same for all the phases shown. _____ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Exercise #1 Astronomy Ranking Task: Kepler’s Laws – Orbital Motion Description: The figure below shows a comet traveling in an elliptical orbit around the Sun. The comet is shown as it moves through four different segments of its orbit (labeled A, B, C, and D). During each segment of the orbit the comet sweeps out the triangular shaped area shaded in gray. Assume each of the shaded triangular shaped areas has the same size. A. Ranking Instruction: Rank the time it took (from greatest to least) for the comet to move along each of the segments (A – D) of the orbit. Ranking Order: Greatest 1 _______ 2 _______ 3 _______ 4 _______ Least Or, the time to travel each segment would be the same. ______ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona B. Ranking Instructions: Rank the distance (from greatest to least) the comet traveled during each of the segments (A – D) of the orbit. Ranking Order: Greatest 1 _______ 2 _______ 3 _______ 4 _______ Least Or, the distance traveled during each segment would be the same. ______ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ C. Ranking Instructions: Rank the speed (from slowest to fastest) of the comet during each segment (A – D) of the orbit. Ranking Order: Slowest 1 _______ 2 _______ 3 _______ 4 _______ Fastest Or, the speed of the comet during each of the segments would be the same. ______ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Exercise #2 Astronomy Ranking Task: Kepler’s Laws – Orbital Motion Description: The figure below shows four locations (A – D) of an asteroid during its elliptical orbit around the Sun. Ranking Instructions: Rank the speed (from fastest to slowest) that the asteroid would have at each of the four locations. Ranking Order: Fastest 1 ____ 2 ____ 3 ____ 4 ____ Slowest Or, the orbital speed at each location would be the same. ________ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Exercise #3 Astronomy Ranking Task: Kepler’s Laws – Orbital Motion Description: The figure below shows a star and five orbiting planets (A – E). Note that planets A, B and C are in perfectly circular orbits. In contrast, planets D and E have more elliptical orbits. Note that the closest and farthest distances for the elliptical orbits of planets D and E happen to match the orbital distances of planets A, B, and C as shown in the figure. Ranking Instructions: Rank the orbital period (from longest to shortest) of the planets. Ranking Order: Longest 1 ___ 2 ____ 3 ____ 4 ____ 5 ____ Shortest Or, the orbital periods of the planets would all be the same. ________ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Exercise #4 Astronomy Ranking Task: Kepler’s Laws – Orbital Motion Description: The table below provides a partial list of the orbital periods (in years), and orbital distances (in AU) for six planets orbiting a one solar-mass star. The mass of each planet is also provided (in Earth masses). PLANET A B C D E F ORBIT DISTANCE (Semi-major axis in AU) PERIOD (Years) 20.0 0.8 3.0 2.0 5.0 3.5 MASS (Earth Masses) 500 375 100 50 3 0.5 Ranking Instructions: Use the provided information to rank the distance (from farthest to closest) of the planets (A – F) from the star. Note that it is not necessary, but may be helpful, to complete the table before making your rankings. Ranking Order: Farthest 1 ____ 2 ____ 3 ____ 4 ____ 5 ____ 6 ____ Closest Or, the orbital distance for each of the planets would all be the same. ________ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Exercise #5 Astronomy Ranking Task: Kepler’s Laws – Orbital Motion Description: The figure below shows four identical one solar mass stars, and four planets (A – D) of different masses in circular orbits of various sizes. In each case the mass of the planet is given in Earth masses and the orbital distance is given in Astronomical Units (AU). Note that the sizes of the stars and planets, and the orbital distances have not been drawn to scale. One Earth Mass Three Earth Masses 1 AU 1 AU 2 AU 2 AU One Earth Mass Two Earth Masses A B C D Ranking Instructions: Rank the orbital periods (from longest to shortest) of the planets (A – D). Ranking Order: Longest 1 ___ 2 ____ 3 ____ 4 ____ Shortest Or, the orbital periods of the planets would all be the same. ________ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Astronomy Ranking Task: Gravity Exercise #1 Description: The figure below shows several objects (A – D) of different masses located on the surface of the earth. A B C D A. Ranking Instructions: Rank (from greatest to least) the strength of the gravitational force exerted by Earth on each of the objects (A – D). Ranking Order: Greatest 1 ______ 2 _______ 3 _______ 4 ______ Least Or, the gravitational force exerted on each object is the same. _________ (indicate with a check mark) Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ B. Ranking Instructions: Rank (from greatest to least) the strength of the gravitational force exerted by each of the objects A – D on Earth. Ranking Order: Greatest 1 ______ 2 _______ 3 _______ 4 ______ Least Or, the gravitational force exerted by each object is the same. _________ (indicate with a check mark) Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Astronomy Ranking Task: Gravity Exercise #2 Description: The figures below (A – E) each show two rocky asteroids with masses (m), expressed in arbitrary units, separated by a distance (d), also expressed in arbitrary units. A d=5 m=3 m=5 B d=5 m = 10 m = 10 C d=5 m=5 m=5 D D m=3 d=5 m=3 E d=5 m = 10 m = 20 Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona A. Ranking Instructions: Rank (from greatest to least) the strength of the gravitational force exerted on the asteroid located on the left side of each pair. Ranking Order: Greatest 1 ____ 2 _____ 3 _____ 4 ____ 5 ____ Least Or, the strength of the gravitational force exerted in each case is the same. _________ (indicate with a check mark) Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ B. Ranking Instructions: Rank (from greatest to least) the strength of the gravitational force exerted on the asteroid located on the right side of each pair. Ranking Order: Greatest 1 ____ 2 _____ 3 _____ 4 ____ 5 ____ Least Or, the strength of the gravitational force exerted in each case is the same. _________ (indicate with a check mark) Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Astronomy Ranking Task: Gravity Exercise #3 Description: In the picture below, the Earth-Moon system is shown (not to scale) along with five possible positions (A - E) for a spacecraft traveling from Earth to the Moon. Note that position C is exactly half-way between Earth and the Moon.. Moon E D C B A Earth A. Ranking Instructions: Rank (from greatest to least) the strength of the gravitational force at positions A - E exerted by the Moon on the spacecraft. Ranking Order: Greatest 1 ______ 2 _______ 3 _______ 4 ______ 5 ______ Least Or, the gravitational force exerted at each position is the same. _________ (indicate with a check mark) Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ B. Ranking Instructions: Rank (from greatest to least) the strength of the net (or total) gravitational forces at positions A - E exerted by both the Earth and the Moon on the spacecraft. Ranking Order: Greatest 1 ______ 2 _______ 3 _______ 4 ______ 5 ______ Least Or, the gravitational force exerted at each position is the same. _________ (indicate with a check mark) Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Exercise #4 Astronomy Ranking Task: Gravity Description: The figures below (A – D) each show two rocky asteroids with masses (m), expressed in arbitrary units, separated by a distance (d), also expressed in arbitrary units. A d=5 m=3 m=5 B d=5 m=5 m=5 C d=5 m=5 m = 10 D d=5 m=5 m = 20 Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona A. Ranking Instructions: Rank (from greatest to least) the strength of the gravitational force exerted on the asteroid located on the left side of each pair. Ranking Order: Greatest 1 ____ 2 _____ 3 _____ 4 ____ Least Or, the strength of the gravitational force exerted in each case is the same. _________ (indicate with a check mark) Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ B. Ranking Instructions: Using Newton’s Second Law, rank the acceleration (from greatest to least) that the asteroids located on the left side of each pair would experience due to the gravitational force exerted on it. Ranking Order: Greatest 1 ______ 2 _______ 3 _______ 4 ______ Least Or, the accelerations for each asteroid is the same. _________ (indicate with a check mark) Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Astronomy Ranking Task: Gravity Exercise #5 Description: The figures below (A – D) each show a large central asteroid along with two other asteroids located to the right and left of the central asteroid. The masses (m) of the asteroids are expressed in arbitrary units, and the distance (d) from the center asteroid is also expressed in arbitrary units. A d=3 m=3 d=3 m=3 d=3 d=3 m=3 m=5 m = 10 B d=3 m=5 m = 10 C d=2 m=5 m = 10 D d=3 d=3 m=5 m = 10 m = 10 Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Ranking Instructions: Rank (from greatest to least) the strength of the net (or total) gravitational force exerted on the center asteroid by its two neighboring asteroids. Ranking Order: Greatest 1 _____ 2 _____ 3 _____ 4 _____ Least Or, gravitational forces are all the same strength. _________ (indicate with a check mark) Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Astronomy Ranking Task: Gravity Exercise #6 Description: The table below shows the masses and distances (expressed in arbitrary units) between four different pairs of stars (Cases A – D). Case Mass of star #1 A B C D 4 2 8 1 Distance between star #1 and star #2 Mass of star #2 2 2 4 3 2 8 4 5 Ranking Instructions: Rank (from greatest to least) the strength of the gravitational force exerted between the pairs of stars in cases A - D. Ranking Order: Greatest 1 ______ 2 _______ 3 _______ 4 ______ Least Or, the strength of the gravitational force exerted between each pair of stars is the same. _________ (indicate with a check mark) Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Exercise #7 Astronomy Ranking Task: Gravity Description: The figure below shows two identical asteroids located very near one another but moving in an orbit that keeps them from colliding. D C A B Ranking Instructions: Rank (from greatest to least) the net (or total) gravitational force that would be exerted on an astronaut if he/she were standing on the asteroids at the various locations (A – D). Ranking Order: Greatest 1 ______ 2 _______ 3 _______ 4 ______ Least Or, the net force exerted on the astronaut would be the same at each location. _________ (indicate with a check mark) Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Exercise #1 Astronomy Ranking Task: Doppler Shift Description: The figure below shows a train traveling toward the right and sounding its horn. Three persons are shown at locations A, B, and C. Assume that all three people can hear the train blowing its horn. A. Ranking Instructions: Rank the pitch of the horn from highest pitch (or frequency) to lowest pitch (or frequency) as heard by each person (A – C) Ranking Order: Highest 1 _______ 2 _______ 3 _______ Lowest Or, the pitch heard by each person would be the same. ______ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ B. Ranking Instructions: Rank the wavelength (from longest to shortest) of the sound of the horn as heard by each person (A – C). Ranking Order: Longest 1 _______ 2 _______ 3 _______ Shortest Or, the wavelength heard is the same for each person.____ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Exercise #2 Astronomy Ranking Task: Doppler Shift Description: The figure below shows the motion of five distant stars (A - E) relative to a stationary observer (telescope). The speed and direction of each star is indicated by the length and direction of the arrows shown. C E A B D Observer Distant Stars Ranking Instructions: Rank the Doppler shift of the light observed from each star (A – E) from greatest “blueshift”, through no shift, to greatest “redshift”. Ranking Order: Greatest blueshift 1_______ 2 _______ 3 _______ 4 _______ 5 ________ Greatest redshift Or, the Doppler shift for each star is the same. ______ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Astronomy Ranking Task: Doppler Shift Exercise #3 Description: The first spectra shown below is of an element as it appears in a laboratory here on Earth. In addition, the spectra of five stars (A - E) as seen from Earth are shown. Assume that the left end of each spectrum corresponds to shorter wavelengths (blue light) and that the right end of each spectrum corresponds with longer wavelengths (red light). Blue Red Lab Spectra Star A Star B Star C Star D Star E A. Ranking instructions: Rank the size of the Doppler shift (from largest to smallest) for the light from each star (A – E). Ranking Order: Largest 1 ____ 2 ____ 3 ____ 4 _____ 5 _____ Smallest Or, the Doppler shift of the light from the stars would all be the same. _____ (indicate with a check mark) Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona B. Ranking instructions: Rank the speed of the stars (A – E) from moving fastest toward the Earth to moving fastest away from Earth. Ranking Order: Moving fastest toward 1 ____ 2 ____ 3 ____ 4 _____ 5 _____ Moving fastest away Or, all the stars have the same speed. _____ (indicate with a check mark) Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Astronomy Ranking Task: Doppler Shift Exercise #4 Description: An important line in the absorption spectrum of stars occurs at a wavelength of 656nm for stars at rest. Imagine that you study five stars (A-E) from Earth and discover that this absorption line is observed at the wavelength shown in the table below for each of the five stars. STAR A B C D E Observed Wavelength of Absorption line 650 nm 663 nm 656 nm 657 nm 646 nm A. Ranking instructions: Rank the size of the Doppler shift (from largest to smallest) observed tonight for the light from each star (A – E). Ranking Order: Largest 1 ____ 2 ____ 3 ____ 4 _____ 5 _____ Smallest Or, the Doppler shift of the light from the stars would all be the same. _____ (indicate with a check mark) Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ B. Ranking instructions: As observed tonight, rank the speed of the stars (A – E) from moving fastest toward the Earth, through not moving at all, to moving fastest away from Earth. Ranking Order: Moving fastest toward 1 ____ 2 ____ 3 ____ 4 _____ 5 _____ Moving fastest away Or, all the stars would have the same speed _____ (indicate with a check mark) Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Astronomy Ranking Task: Luminosity of Stars Exercise #1 Description: Imagine you are comparing the five electric hot plates (A – E) of different sizes and temperatures. The temperature of each hot plate is indicated by a shade of gray such that the lighter the shade of gray, the higher the temperature of the hot plate. B C D E A A. Ranking instructions: Rank the surface area (from largest to smallest) of the hotplates. Ranking Order: Largest 1 ____ 2 ____ 3 ____ 4 _____ 5 _____ Smallest Or, all the hotplates have the same surface area. _____ (indicate with a check mark) Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ B. Ranking instructions: Rank the temperature (from hottest to coldest) of the hotplates. Ranking Order: Hottest 1 ____ 2 ____ 3 ____ 4 _____ 5 _____ Coldest Or, all the hotplates have the same temperature _____ (indicate with a check mark) Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona C. Ranking instructions: Rank the total energy output or luminosity (from greatest to least) of the hotplates. Ranking Order: Greatest 1 ____ 2 ____ 3 ____ 4 _____ 5 _____ Least Or, all the hotplates have the same energy output or luminosity. _____ (indicate with a check mark) Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Exercise #2 Astronomy Ranking Task: Luminosity of Stars Description: Consider the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram shown below which relates the luminosity (in solar units) to the temperature for four stars (A - D). A. Ranking instructions: Rank the temperature of the stars (A – D) from hottest to coolest. Ranking Order: Hottest 1 ____ 2 ____ 3 ____ 4 _____ Coldest Or, all the stars have the same temperature. _____ (indicate with a check mark) Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ B. Ranking instructions: Rank the luminosity of the stars (A – D) from greatest (brightest) to least (dimmest). Ranking Order: Greatest 1 ____ 2 ____ 3 ____ 4 _____ Least Or, all the stars have the same luminosity. _____ (indicate with a check mark) Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona C. Ranking instructions: Rank the surface area of the stars (A – D) from largest to smallest. Ranking Order: Largest 1 ____ 2 ____ 3 ____ 4 _____ Smallest Or, all the stars have the same surface area. _____ (indicate with a check mark) Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Exercise #3 Astronomy Ranking Task: Luminosity of Stars Description: Consider the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram shown below which relates the luminosity (in solar units) to the temperature for four stars (A - D). A. Ranking instructions: Rank the temperature of the stars (A – D) from hottest to coldest. Ranking Order: Hottest 1 ____ 2 ____ 3 ____ 4 _____ Coldest Or, all the stars have the same temperature. _____ (indicate with a check mark) Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ B. Ranking instructions: Rank the luminosity of the stars (A – D) from greatest (brightest) to least (dimmest). Ranking Order: Greatest 1 ____ 2 ____ 3 ____ 4 _____ Least Or, all the stars have the same luminosity. _____ (indicate with a check mark) Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ C. Ranking instructions: Rank the surface area of the stars (A – D) from smallest to largest. Ranking Order: Smallest 1 ____ 2 ____ 3 ____ 4 _____ Largest Or, all the stars have the same surface area. _____ (indicate with a check mark) Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Exercise #4 Astronomy Ranking Task: Luminosity of Stars Description: Consider the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram shown below which relates the luminosity (in solar units) to the temperature for four stars (A - D). A. Ranking instructions: Rank the temperature of the stars (A – D) from hottest to coldest. Ranking Order: Hottest 1 ____ 2 ____ 3 ____ 4 _____ Coldest Or, all the stars have the same temperature. _____ (indicate with a check mark) Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ B. Ranking instructions: Rank the luminosity of the stars (A – D) from greatest (brightest) to least (dimmest). Ranking Order: Greatest 1 ____ 2 ____ 3 ____ 4 _____ Least Or, all the stars have the same luminosity. _____ (indicate with a check mark) Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona C. Ranking instructions: Rank the surface area of the stars (A – D) from largest to smallest. Ranking Order: Largest 1 ____ 2 ____ 3 ____ 4 _____ Smallest Or, all the stars have the same surface area. _____ (indicate with a check mark) Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Astronomy Ranking Task: Luminosity of Stars Exercise #5 Description: The temperature and surface area for six stars (A - F) are given in the table below. A B C D E F Star Surface Area Temperature A 1 1000 K B 1 2000 K C 2 2000 K D 2 3000 K E 2 1000 K F 4 2000 K Ranking instructions: Rank the luminosity of the stars (A – F) from greatest (brightest) to least (dimmest). Ranking Order: Greatest 1 ____ 2 ____ 3 ____ 4 _____ 5 _____ 6 _____ Least Or, all the stars have the same luminosity. _____ (indicate with a check mark) Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Exercise #1 Astronomy Ranking Task: Apparent and Absolute Magnitude Description: The figure below shows four identical cars (A - D) driving toward you at sunset with their headlights turned on. Each car is equipped with identical headlights. A. Ranking Instructions: Rank the distance (from greatest to least) that each car is from you. Ranking Order: Greatest 1 _______ 2 _______ 3 _______ 4 _______ Least Or, the distance to each car is the same. ______ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ B. Ranking Instructions: Rank the apparent brightness (from greatest to least) of each car’s headlights. Ranking Order: Greatest 1 _______ 2 _______ 3 _______ 4 _______ Least Or, the apparent brightness of each car’s headlights is the same. ______ (indicate with check mark). Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ C. Ranking Instructions: Rank the actual (intrinsic) brightness (from greatest to least) of each car’s headlights. Ranking Order: Greatest 1 _______ 2 _______ 3 _______ 4 _______ Least Or, the actual brightness of each car’s headlights is the same. ______ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Exercise #2 Astronomy Ranking Task: Apparent and Absolute Magnitude Description: The figure below shows five stars (A - E) as they appear in the night sky from Earth. A darker shading is used to indicate the appearance of a dimmer star. Note that star B is shown the darkest, followed by D, C, E, and A. A. Ranking Instructions: Rank the brightness (from greatest to least) of each star as it appears in the night sky. Ranking Order: Greatest 1 _______ 2 _______ 3 _______ 4 _______ 5 _______ Least Or, the brightness of each star would appear the same. ______ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ B. Ranking Instructions: Rank the numerical value (from greatest to least) for each star’s apparent magnitude. Ranking Order: Greatest 1 _______ 2 _______ 3 _______ 4 _______ 5 _______ Least Or, the apparent magnitude number would be the same for each star. ______ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona C. Ranking Instructions: Rank the distance (from greatest to least) of each star from Earth. Ranking Order: Greatest 1 _______ 2 _______ 3 _______ 4 _______ 5 _______ Least Or, the distance from Earth cannot be determined from this information. ______ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Exercise #3 Astronomy Ranking Task: Apparent and Absolute Magnitude Description: The figure below shows five stars (A - E) as they appear in the night sky from Earth. The absolute magnitude number is also provided to the right of each star. Note that all the stars are shown with the same shading to indicate how they would appear in the sky. A. Ranking Instructions: Rank the brightness (from greatest to least) of each star (A – E) as it appears in the night sky. Ranking Order: Greatest 1 ______ 2 ______ 3 ______ 4 ______ 5 ______ Least Or, the brightness of each star appears the same. ______ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ B. Ranking Instructions: Rank the absolute magnitude number (from greatest to least) of each star (A – E). Ranking Order: Greatest 1 ______ 2 ______ 3 ______ 4 ______ 5 ______ Least Or, the absolute magnitude number of each star would be the same. ______ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona C. Ranking Instructions: Rank the total amount of energy (from greatest to least) given off by each star (A – E). Ranking Order: Greatest 1 ______ 2 ______ 3 ______ 4 ______ 5 ______ Least Or, the total amount of energy given off by each star would be the same. ______ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ D. Ranking Instructions: Rank the distance (from farthest to closest) of each star (A – E) from Earth. Ranking Order: Farthest 1 _____ 2 _____ 3 _____ 4 _____ 5 _____ Closest Or, the distance from Earth to each star is the same. ______ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Exercise #4 Astronomy Ranking Task: Apparent and Absolute Magnitude Description: The table below provides an incomplete list of the magnitude and distance (from Earth) for five stars (A - E). Star Name A B C D E Apparent Magnitude -1 5 1 3 Absolute Magnitude 3 1 0 Distance from Earth (parsecs) 10 10,000 3 A. Ranking Instructions: Rank the brightness (from greatest to least) of each star (A – E) as it would appear in the night sky. Note that it is not necessary, but may be helpful, to complete the table before making your rankings. Ranking Order: Greatest 1 _____ 2 _____ 3 _____ 4 _____ 5 _____ Least Or, the brightness of each star would appear the same from Earth ___ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ B. Ranking Instructions: Rank the apparent magnitude number (from greatest to least) of each star (A – E). Ranking Order: Greatest 1 _____ 2 _____ 3 _____ 4 _____ 5 _____ Least Or, the apparent magnitude number of each star is the same. ___ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona C. Ranking Instructions: Rank the actual brightness or luminosity (from greatest to least) of each star (A – E). Ranking Order: Greatest 1 _____ 2 _____ 3 _____ 4 _____ 5 _____ Least Or, the actual brightness of each star is the same. ______ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ D. Ranking Instructions: Rank the absolute magnitude number (from greatest to least) of each star (A – E). Ranking Order: Greatest 1 _____ 2 _____ 3 _____ 4 _____ 5 _____ Least Or, the absolute magnitude number of each star would be the same. ______ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ E. Ranking Instructions: Rank the distance (from farthest to closest) to each star (A – E) from Earth. Ranking Order: Farthest 1 _____ 2 _____ 3 _____ 4 _____ 5 _____ Closest Or, the distance to each star from Earth would be the same. ______ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona Exercise #1 Astronomy Ranking Task: Stellar Evolution Description: The figures below show main sequence stars of various sizes . A) Ranking Instructions: Rank, from least to most, the mass of the stars: Least 1____, 2____, 3____ 4 ____, 5 ____ Most All the stars would have the same mass: ______ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ B) Ranking Instructions: Rank, form hottest to coolest, the temperature of the stars: Hottest 1____, 2____, 3____ 4 ____, 5 ____ Coolest All the stars would have the same temperature: ______ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 1 C) Ranking Instructions: Rank, from greatest to least, the luminosity of the stars: Greatest 1____, 2____, 3____ 4 ____, 5 ____ Least All the stars would have the same luminosity: ______ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ D) Ranking Instructions: Rank, form longest to shortest, the total main sequence lifetime of the stars: Longest 1____, 2____, 3____ 4 ____, 5 ____ Shortest All the stars would have the same main sequence lifetimne: ______ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 2 Astronomy Ranking Task: Stellar Evolution Exercise #2 Description: The figure below shows an H-R diagram with data points A – F that represent various stages in the “evolutionary path” for the lives of stars. Note that only stars B, D, and E are main sequence stars. D F Luminosity B E A C Black Dwarf Temperature Ranking Instructions: Rank, from earliest to latest, the stages in the life of a low mass star without a companion. Omit any stages shown on the diagram that do not apply. Earliest Latest Information is insufficient to rank stages: ______ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ __________________ Exercise #3 Astronomy Ranking Task: Stellar Evolution Description: The list below provides various stages of star formation and evolution for low mass stars (<8 MSolar) and high mass stars (>8MSolar). A Planetary Nebula Star B G Spectral Class Main Sequence Star C Neutron Star D Supernova Type II E Nothing F Giant G O Spectral Class Main Sequence H Molecular Cloud of Gas and Dust I White Dwarf J Black Hole K Supernova Type I L Nova M Gravity Collapse of Gas/Dust Cloud A) Ranking Instructions: Rank, from earliest to latest, the stages for a low mass stars without a companion. Do not include any stages that do not apply. Earliest Latest Information is insufficient to rank stages: ______ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ __________________ B) Ranking Instructions: Rank, from earliest to latest, the stages for a low mass stars with a companion. Do not include any stages that do not apply. Earliest Latest Information is insufficient to rank stages: ______ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ __________________ C) Ranking Instructions: Rank, from earliest to latest, the stages for the least massive of the high mass stars. Do not include any stages that do not apply. Earliest Latest Information is insufficient to rank stages: ______ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ __________________ D) Ranking Instructions: Rank, from earliest to latest, the stages for the most massive of the high mass stars. Do not include any stages that do not apply. Earliest Latest Information is insufficient to rank stages: ______ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ __________________ Exercise #4 Astronomy Ranking Task: Stellar Evolution Description: The figures below show H-R diagrams of four star clusters labeled A – D. A B C D A) Ranking Instructions: Rank, from youngest to oldest, the age of the star clusters. Youngest 1____, 2____, 3____ 4 ____ Oldest All the stars clusters are the same age: ______ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ __________________ Astronomy Ranking Task: Star Evolution & Lookback Time Exercise #1 Description: Imagine that the four stars listed below all became Main Sequence (MS) stars at exactly the same time 10 billion years ago but in different locations of the universe. Cosmo Star is an O spectral class star with a MS lifetime of 3 million years. Its life will eventually end as a SN type II and become a black hole. Cosmo Star is located in a galaxy 10 billion light years (ly) from Earth. Ollie Star is a K spectral class star with a MS lifetime of 30 billion years. Its life will eventually end as a slowly cooling white dwarf. Ollie Star is located in the MW at a distance of 10,000 ly from Earth. Sullivan Star is an F spectral class star that is part of a binary star system. It has a MS lifetime of 5 billion years. Its life will eventually end in a SN type I that completely destroys Sullivan Star. Sullivan Star is located in a galaxy 6 billion ly from Earth. Sliver Star is a B spectral class star with a MS lifetime of 20 million years. Its life will eventually end as a SN type II and become a neutron star. Sliver is located in the MW at a distance of 40,000 ly from Earth. A. Ranking Instructions Rank the stars (from first to last) based on when they became main sequence stars. Ranking Order: First 1 _______ 2 _______ 3 _______ 4 _______ Last Or, all the stars became main sequence stars at the same time. ______ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ B. Ranking Instructions Rank the stars (from first to last) based on when they reach(ed) their final end state. Ranking Order: First 1 _______ 2 ______ 3 _______ 4 _______ Last Or, all the stars reach(ed) their final end state at the same time. ______ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona C. Ranking Instructions Rank the stars (from longest time to shortest time) based on how long it takes light to travel to Earth from the star. Ranking Order: Longest time 1 _______ 2 _______ 3 _______ 4 _______ Shortest time Or, the time it takes light to get to Earth from the star is the same for all the stars. ______ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ D. Ranking Instructions Rank the stars (from first to last) based on when an observer on Earth would see their final end states. Ranking Order: First 1 _______ 2 _______ 3 _______ 4 _______ Last Or, the final end state of the star will all be visible at Earth at the same time. ______ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning for ranking this way: _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ E. Is the star with the longest total lifetime also the farthest away from Earth? Explain. F. Out of the four stars, is the star that meets its end first also the first to be observed on Earth in its end state? Why or Why not? G. Out of the four stars, is the star that will be observed in its end state last also the one that is closest to Earth? Is this answer always true for all stars? If not, describe a case where it would be different. Copyright © 2005 Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research (CAPER) Team University of Arizona ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 01/31/2010 for the course AS 103 taught by Professor Millar during the Fall '08 term at Grand Rapids Community College.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online