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Unformatted text preview: AS103 – Descriptive Astronomy Video 1 – Cosmos: The Backbone of Night The questions on this sheet are from the course question database and have an equal probability of appearing on a test with any other question from the lab, textbook, sample tests or study guide. The only way to obtain the answers to these questions is to watch the video. The answers to these questions are not published. 1. What (night sky object) is (was) the bushman’s ‘backbone of night’ ? A) The Moon. B) The sky’s nightly consistency in star patterns and motion. C) The Milky Way. D) The campfire that ‘conquered the darkness.’ E) The Sun. 2. He is the first scientist of the Ionian tradition. A) Aristarchus B) Pythagoras C) Plato D) Empedocles E) Thales 3. He did an experiment which detected the invisible air. A) Democritus B) Aristarchus C) Empedocles D) Thales E) Pythagoras 4. He believed that events in nature are not random, but are predetermined by the actions of atoms. A) Pythagoras B) Aristarchus C) Thales D) Democritus E) Plato 5. He developed a mysticism which worshiped numbers and was fascinated by the regular solids. A) Thales B) Empedocles C) Democritus D) Plato E) Pythagoras 6. He preached that the truth about nature is better achieved by pure thought or theory, rather than experimentation. A) Democritus B) Plato C) Thales D) Pythagoras E) Empedocles Winter 2008 Video 1 – Cosmos: The Backbone of Night Page 3 7. He first proposed that the Sun was at the center of the universe. A) Thales B) Empedocles C) Aristarchus D) Pythagoras E) Plato 8. A short statement comparing the difference between the Ionians and the Pythagoreans in their approach to science: A) The Pythagoreans believed pure thought was the only way to scientific truth while the Ionians preferred hypothesis and experiment. B) The Ionians believed mysticism was the only way to understand natural phenomena while the Pythagoreans preferred pure math. C) The Pythagoreans believed mysticism was the only way to understand natural phenomena while the Ionians preferred pure math. D) The Pythagoreans kept their discoveries secret while the Ionians believed in open inquiry. E) The Ionians believed pure thought was the only way to scientific truth while the Pythagoreans preferred hypothesis and experiment. Winter 2008 Video 1 – Cosmos: The Backbone of Night Page 4 AS103 – Descriptive Astronomy Video 2 – Cosmos: The Harmony of Worlds The questions on this sheet are from the course question database and have an equal probability of appearing on a test with any other question from the lab, textbook, sample tests or study guide. The only way to obtain the answers to these questions is to watch the video. The answers to these questions are not published. and the last . 1. Kepler was the first A) astrophysicist; scientific astrologer B) astrophysicist; scientific theologian C) scientific astrologer; scientific theologian D) scientific theologian; scientific astrologer E) scientific theologian; astrophysicist 2. “Disaster” comes from the A) Greek; bad star B) Italian; bad star C) Latin; bad star D) Chinese; bad star E) Babylonian; bad star for . 3. Chinese court astrologers who made inaccurate predictions were A) dishonored. B) executed. C) disbarred. D) imprisoned. E) banished. 4. The A) B) C) D) E) gravitational influence of the stars the obstetrician the asteroids the constellations Jupiter was much larger than the gravitational influence of Mars. 5. To the Northern Europeans, the Big Dipper was A) a hippopotamus. B) a plow. C) King Charles’ cart. D) a ladle. E) a man, dancing around the campfire. 6. Up there in the skies was a metaphor for A) God’s creation. B) immortality. C) the cycle of life. D) life on Earth. E) the gods. Winter 2008 Video 2 – Cosmos: The Harmony of Worlds Page 5 7. One A) B) C) D) E) of the earliest explanations for the planets was that they were living gods. the souls of dead warriors. other worlds, like the Earth. other Suns. other Moons. 8. Ptolemy effectively prevented the advancement of astronomy A) in fear of reprisal by the Church. B) by the authority of the Church. C) by inventing the epicycle. D) for 1500 years. E) by the authority of astrology. 9. It was in geometry that Kepler glimpsed the image of A) the planetary orbits. B) the planetary spacings. C) the grand design of God. D) the mind of God. E) the mind of the universe. 10. In Kepler’s model, the reason that there are only six planets is because there are only A) five regular solids. B) six epicycles. C) six Greek gods. D) six elliptical orbits. E) six circular orbits. 11. Kepler: “Tycho possesses the best observations, he lacks only the A) geometry B) architect C) instruments D) calculus E) mathematics 12. Tycho: “Mars’ motion was the most difficult to reconcile with A) an epicyclic orbit. B) a circular orbit. C) a geocentric orbit. D) a differential orbit. E) an elliptical orbit. . to put all this to use.” .” 13. Kepler was profoundly annoyed at having to abandon A) perfect circles. B) the Copernican model. C) the geocentric model. D) the Ptolemaic model. E) ellipses. 14. The A) B) C) D) E) planets move on with the Sun at a perfect epicycle; at an equant an ellipse; at the center an equant; focus a circular ellipse; at the center an ellipse; one focus Winter 2008 . Video 2 – Cosmos: The Harmony of Worlds Page 6 15. A planet sweeps out equal A) circles; times B) speeds; times C) angles; times D) epicycles; times E) areas; times in equal . 16. The farther away a planet is from the Sun, the A) faster B) slower 17. Kepler wrote one of the first A) children’s science B) astrology C) astrophysics D) mathematical physics E) science fiction it moves. books. 18. Kepler preferred the hard truth to his dearest illusions. That is the A) goal B) beginning C) foundation D) basis E) heart Winter 2008 of science. Video 2 – Cosmos: The Harmony of Worlds Page 7 AS103 – Descriptive Astronomy Video 3 – Newton, Einstein and Gravity The questions on this sheet are from the course question database and have an equal probability of appearing on a test with any other question from the lab, textbook, sample tests or study guide. The only way to obtain the answers to these questions is to watch the video. The answers to these questions are not published. 1. “Aristotle felt that there were two main kinds of motion. A) heavenly; earthly B) natural; gravitational C) orbital; gravitational D) natural; violent E) vertical; horizontal motion ... and 2. “Aristotle’s ill-conceived concepts of motion lasted almost 2000 years, until venerated authority.” A) Galileo B) Kepler C) Einstein D) Copernicus E) Ptolemy 3. “Newton’s laws of motion are, since he announced them, A) fundamental in B) the predecessor to C) the basis of research for D) the bane of E) the goal of 4. “ A) B) C) D) E) motion.” arrived to challenge this all of physics.” was universal. Each object attracted every other one.” Acceleration Magnetism Gravity Momentum Electricity 5. The gravitational force that one objects exerts on another is due to its A) mass; the size B) weight; how far away C) mass; how far away D) mass; its radius E) weight; its diameter 6. Although Newton precisely explained the A) cause; range B) strength; cause C) strength; range D) cause; strength E) range; strength Winter 2008 and of gravity, he did not explain the Video 3 – Newton, Einstein and Gravity the other object is. . Page 8 7. For A) B) C) D) every experimenter, the speed of light is . faster than any other experimenter’s measurement the same as any other experimenter’s measurement dependent on the other experimenter’s measurement slower than any other experimenter’s measurement 8. “The nature of space and the nature of time are conceived them.” A) completely different from B) almost the same as C) exactly the same as 9. Einstein described gravity as a A) curvature B) intersection C) disjunction D) junction E) disassociation 10. The A) B) C) D) E) orbit of the planet Uranus Neptune Jupiter Mars Mercury Winter 2008 the way Newton or Galileo or any previous person ever of space-time. did not obey Newton’s laws. Video 3 – Newton, Einstein and Gravity Page 9 AS103 – Descriptive Astronomy Video 4 – The Universe: Secrets of the Sun The questions on this sheet are from the course question database and have an equal probability of appearing on a test with any other question from the lab, textbook, sample tests or study guide. The only way to obtain the answers to these questions is to watch the video. The answers to these questions are not published. 1. What type of star is the Sun? A) red dwarf B) orange dwarf C) blue dwarf D) white dwarf E) yellow dwarf 2. What is the surface temperature of the Sun? A) 600, 000◦F B) 100, 000◦F C) 10, 000◦F D) 20, 000, 000◦F E) 6, 000◦F 3. What physical process powers the Sun? A) nuclear fusion B) chemical burning C) gravitational expansion D) gravitational collapse E) gravitational heating 4. The A) B) C) D) E) material density at the core of the Sun is 10 times the density of iron 100 times the density of water 10 times the density of lead 10 times the density of water 100 times the density of iron 5. The A) B) C) D) E) amount of mass converted into energy by the Sun, per second, is 5,000,000 pounds 500,000 pounds 500,000,000 pounds 5,000,000 tons 5,000 tons 6. How A) B) C) D) E) thick is the Sun’s convective zone? 130,000 feet 130,000 kilometers 130,000 centimeters 130,000 meters 130,000 miles Winter 2008 Video 4 – The Universe: Secrets of the Sun Page 10 7. What event triggered the collapse of a dust cloud and the formation of the Sun? A) The rotation of the galaxy. B) A supernova explosion. C) A gamma-ray burst. D) The formation of the planets. E) A passing star. 8. All outbursts of solar violence are caused by A) gravity B) magnetism C) electricity D) extreme heat E) nuclear fusion 9. The A) B) C) D) E) Sun has differential rotation, meaning it has different rotation rates at different solar cycles. during different seasons. at different longitudes. at different latitudes. at different layers. 10. Observation of coronal loops and prominences A) allows us the measure the diameter of the Sun. B) allows us the measure the temperature of the Sun. C) shows us the shape of the Sun’s surface. D) show us the Sun’s twisted magnetic field. E) allows us the measure the mass of the Sun. 11. Solar prominences can last for A) weeks or months. B) hours or days. C) days or weeks. D) minutes or hours. E) hours or days. 12. A sunspot is A) a region on the Sun’s surface cooled by the Sun’s twisted magnetic field. B) caused by the Sun’s strong and twisted gravitational field. C) a super-heated area on the Sun’s surface. D) a region where the Sun is emitting no energy into space. E) caused by solar flares or prominences. 13. Coronal mass ejections A) can be caused by solar flares. B) could cause as much damage on Earth as a hurricane or tornado. C) can travel as fast as six million miles per hour. D) take several days to travel from the Sun to the Earth. E) are all of these. 14. Mars may have a thin atmosphere, partly because A) its surface temperature is much too high. B) its gravity is too low to hold on the hydrogen and helium gas. C) it has no magnetic field to protect it from the solar wind and coronal mass ejections. D) it is too cold and the atmospheric gasses freeze-out, on the ground. E) its atmospheric gasses were absorbed by water vapor, which then froze and fell to the surface. Winter 2008 Video 4 – The Universe: Secrets of the Sun Page 11 15. Auroras A) are linked to distortions in the Earth’s gravitational field. B) can only be seen above regions where there is ice on the ground. C) are visible every night in Grand Rapids. D) work like neon signs. E) can be seen anywhere in the world. 16. When was the last ‘perfect solar storm’ ? A) AD 79 B) prehistory C) 1987 D) 1859 E) 1957 17. When is a solar storm most likely to hit the Earth? A) At the minimum of the 11-year sunspot cycle. B) At the peak or maximum of the 11-year sunspot cycle. C) When the sunspot cycle is on an downward trend in sunspot counts. D) When the sunspot cycle is on an upward trend in sunspot counts. E) There’s pretty much an even chance at all times. 18. How do we calculate the expected lifetime of the Sun? A) We base a calculation on the rate at which the Sun is casting off mass in coronal mass ejections. B) We look at how fast the fuel is being burned and how much fuel there is can do a simple calculation. C) We use the mass of the Sun to derive its expected lifetime. D) We use the small orbital changes in the Earth and the Moon to project the expected lifetime of the Sun. E) We calculate the amount of time the Sun can radiate heat at its current rate. Winter 2008 Video 4 – The Universe: Secrets of the Sun Page 12 AS103 – Descriptive Astronomy Video 5 – The Universe: Life and Death of a Star The questions on this sheet are from the course question database and have an equal probability of appearing on a test with any other question from the lab, textbook, sample tests or study guide. The only way to obtain the answers to these questions is to watch the video. The answers to these questions are not published. 1. When gravity pulls mass together it creates the universe’s most basic unit of mass, A) galaxies. B) atoms. C) stars. D) planets. E) electrons. 2. A star like our own forms from a clump of gas A) the size of the Sun. B) the size of our solar system. C) 100 times the size of our solar system. D) 10 times the size of the Sun. E) 1000 times the size of our solar system. 3. The A) B) C) D) E) essence of a star is that it is self-luminous, producing its own heat. it has sufficient size to show as a small disk in our telescopes. it is made of hydrogen and helium. it is orbited by planets. it has the strongest gravitational field of any object around it. 4. How A) B) C) D) E) long does helium burning last in a Sun-like star? 1 thousand years 100 million years 1 million years 10 thousand years 10 million years 5. When a Sun-like star is burning helium, what happens to the outer layers? A) They initially contract, but then quickly expand and leave the star, never to be seen again. B) They expand and are lost to space as a planetary nebula. C) They expand but soon contract back to their original size, then fade from view. D) They contract and fall onto the surface of the burned-out core. E) They remain essentially they same diameter, eventually fading away. 6. White dwarf stars support their weight against gravity by A) using left-over heat generated during their time on the main-sequence. B) burning electrons in a new form of nuclear fusion. C) neutron degeneracy pressure. D) burning neutrons to form iron. E) electron degeneracy pressure. Winter 2008 Video 5 – The Universe: Life and Death of a Star Page 13 7. A white dwarf, the size of the Earth, has a mass A) 30,000 times that of Jupiter. B) the same as the Earth’s. C) 3,000 times that of the Earth. D) 300,000 times that of Jupiter. E) 300,000 times that of the Earth. 8. How A) B) C) D) E) many stars have companions? all of them more than half less than half about 25% of them none of them 9. The A) B) C) D) E) heavier elements, iron and above, were created by a white dwarf star. by the supernova explosion itself. during the helium burning stage. during the blue-giant stage. during the main-sequence stage. 10. One A) B) C) D) E) teaspoonful of neutron star material would weight 10 billion tons 1 billion pounds 100 billion pounds 1 billion tons 1000 billion pounds 11. A 150 pound person on Earth, would weigh A) 100 billion pounds. B) 10 billion tons. C) 1 billion pounds. D) 10 million tons. E) 10 billion pounds. on a neutron star. 12. A single star, 150 solar masses, can produce A) 2-5 solar masses of lead. B) 20-25 solar masses of iron. C) 20-25 solar masses of silicon. D) 20-25 solar masses of lead. E) 200-250 solar masses of silicon. 13. When a pair of neutron stars collide, it result is the A) annihilation of at least one of the stars. B) production of a black hole. C) production of more energy than the Sun produces over its entire lifetime. D) complete annihilation of both stars. E) creation of new stars and planets. 14. Where in a galaxy do we find a very high probability of stars colliding? A) in globular clusters B) in open clusters C) in the spiral arms D) in OB associations E) in the halo Winter 2008 Video 5 – The Universe: Life and Death of a Star Page 14 15. How are the blue stragglers in the globular clusters explained? A) They were collected from the surroundings as the globular cluster orbits the galaxy. B) They are the result of collisions between a globular cluster and its surroundings. C) They are still unexplained. D) They the results of star collisions. E) They are the result of the collision of two or more globular clusters. 16. A brown dwarf has the same ingredients as a star but A) not enough mass to sustain nuclear fusion. B) not enough heat to sustain nuclear fusion. C) not enough dust to sustain nuclear fusion. D) not enough diameter to sustain nuclear fusion. E) not enough hydrogen to sustain nuclear fusion. Winter 2008 Video 5 – The Universe: Life and Death of a Star Page 15 AS103 – Descriptive Astronomy Video 6 – Nova: The Death of a Star The questions on this sheet are from the course question database and have an equal probability of appearing on a test with any other question from the lab, textbook, sample tests or study guide. The only way to obtain the answers to these questions is to watch the video. The answers to these questions are not published. 1. What is a supernova? A) A supped-up Chevy. B) The rare sight of a star, blowing itself apart. C) The implosion of a star’s outer layers. D) The progenitor of a white dwarf. E) A bright nova. 2. How A) B) C) D) E) do supernovae play a central role in the evolution of the universe? Their explosions create the basic elements of life. Their explosions cause other stars to explode. Their explosions can destroy all life in the galaxy where they occur. Their explosions create the amino acids needed for DNA. Their explosions trigger the formation of galaxies. 3. When was the last naked-eye supernova (before 1987A) seen? A) 1604 B) 1066 C) 1492 D) 1572 E) 878 4. How A) B) C) D) E) often Once Once Once Once Once do supernovae occur (somewhere) in the universe? per second. per century. per decade. per month. every 400 years. 5. What kind of particles are produced in large amounts during a supernova, that are also needed to make sure the expanding remnant cloud continues to expand? A) protons B) muons C) neutrinos D) neutrons E) electrons 6. Which star did Graeme White (with whom others eventually agreed) identify as the star that blew up, creating SN1987A? (Note: It is known only by its catalog number. Spell the catalog name as best you can) A) The Large Magellanic Cloud B) The Small Magellanic Cloud C) 30 Doradus D) Rigel E) Sanduleak −69, 202 Winter 2008 Video 6 – Nova: The Death of a Star Page 16 7. What was different (and unexpected, these stars, we thought, don’t do this...) about the star that produced SN1987A? A) It was a black hole. B) It was a blue-giant star. C) It was a neutron star. D) It was a red-giant star. E) It was a white dwarf. 8. How A) B) C) D) E) did we confirm the production of these particles by supernovae? By observation with an ultraviolet telescope. By observation with an optical telescope. By observation with the Hubble Space Telescope. By observation with a radio telescope. By observation with a “neutrino telescope.” 9. How A) B) C) D) E) did astronomers first know that SN1987A was different from a “normal supernova?” It was visible for only a few hours, rather than months. It occurred in a very small galaxy. It produced an enormous number neutrons. It occurred in a galaxy outside the Milky Way. It did not have a normal light-curve. 10. How did the astronomers explain the unusual light-curve of SN1987A? A) It was a main-sequence star. B) It was a neutron star. C) It was a white dwarf. D) It was a red-giant star. E) It was a blue-giant star. 11. What strange observational result of SN1987A was found using speckle interferometry? A) There are two, very bright sources of optical emissions. B) There is still a normal, main-sequence star at the location. C) There is a super-powerful pulsar in the center. D) There is a huge black hole at the center. E) There is an incomplete ring of material surrounding the star’s remnant. 12. What are the possible objects left behind at the center of a supernova? I. A black hole. II. A neutron star III. A white dwarf. IV. A protostar. A) I only. B) I or IV. C) I or II. D) I, III or IV. E) III or IV. Winter 2008 Video 6 – Nova: The Death of a Star Page 17 AS103 – Descriptive Astronomy Video 7 – Black Holes The questions on this sheet are from the course question database and have an equal probability of appearing on a test with any other question from the lab, textbook, sample tests or study guide. The only way to obtain the answers to these questions is to watch the video. The answers to these questions are not published. 1. What is a black hole made of? A) A dead, high-mass star. B) A singularity. C) A pure warpage of space and time. D) A supernova. E) An imaginary event horizon. 2. When did scientists come to a consensus that black holes really exist? A) 1980s B) 1689 C) 1990s D) 2000 E) They haven’t. 3. How A) B) C) D) E) are black holes formed and what objects can produce a black hole? By the collapse of a neutron star. By the death of a low-mass star. By the collision of two neutron stars. By the supernova explosion of a high-mass star. By the collision of a low- and a high-mass star. 4. What is at the bottom of a black hole? A) nothing B) a neutron star C) a supernova D) a new universe E) the singularity 5. What is the event horizon? A) That location in space where matter can not pass. B) That location in space where light no longer travels. C) The edge of the known universe. D) The limit of range of our telescopes. E) That location where gravity is so strong that nothing can escape. 6. How A) B) C) D) E) are X-rays produced around black holes? By the black hole itself. By the black hole’s rotational motion. By the heating of an orbiting accretion disk. By the gravitational interaction of the black hole with its neighboring stars. By gravity waves. Winter 2008 Video 7 – Black Holes Page 18 7. The A) B) C) D) E) shredding of matter as it falls into a black hole is called stripping. filamentation. fragmentation. spaghettification. splintering. 8. What is a worm hole? A) A passageway from one B) A small tunnel through C) A passageway from one D) A passageway from one E) A passageway from one universe to another. the ground. galaxy to another. black hole to another. neutron star to another. 9. Where do we find supermassive black holes? A) Within clusters of black holes. B) At the center of open clusters. C) Outside of galaxies. D) At the center of globular clusters. E) At the centers of galaxies. 10. What is the singularity like? A) It is where the “secrets of the universe are hidden.” B) It is invisible. C) It is where all the matter and energy that has fallen into the black hole go. D) It is where “science ends and speculation begins.” E) All of these. Winter 2008 Video 7 – Black Holes Page 19 AS103 – Descriptive Astronomy Video 8 – The Universe: Alien Galaxies The questions on this sheet are from the course question database and have an equal probability of appearing on a test with any other question from the lab, textbook, sample tests or study guide. The only way to obtain the answers to these questions is to watch the video. The answers to these questions are not published. 1. If the Sun where the size of a period on this page, the Galaxy would be the size of A) the United States. B) Jupiter. C) Michigan. D) the Solar System. E) Grand Rapids. 2. The A) B) C) D) E) expansion of the universe is speeding up; inflation. slowing down; inflation. speeding up; dark energy. speeding up; dark matter. slowing down; dark matter. over the past four or five billion years because of 3. The A) B) C) D) E) . galaxies are spaced so far apart they can never collide. very far apart, but they still collide occasionally. so that they are nearly touching each other. erratically. Their spacing can not be described. only a few diameters apart. 4. Anyone living on a planet around a star at the center of the whirlpool galaxy would A) be pulled into the central, supermassive black hole. B) not be able to see any other stars because of the dense dust in the nucleus. C) be under constant (24/7) daylight. D) not survive long because of the intense radiation coming from this active galaxy. E) be able to see all the other galaxies. 5. The A) B) C) D) E) brightest quasar is about a hundred a trillion ten a billion a thousand times as bright as our Sun. 6. Tidal tails are A) “big, swooping arcs of stars.” B) occur between the galaxies collected in galaxy clusters. C) the result of tidal forces between two galaxies passing by each other. D) occur within the galaxies collected in galaxy clusters. E) cause galaxies to collide. Winter 2008 Video 8 – The Universe: Alien Galaxies Page 20 7. The A) B) C) D) E) farthest we’ve been able to see back in time, and see galaxies, is 1 billion years after the big bang. 500 million years after the big bang. 380 thousand years after the big bang. 1 million years after the big bang. 500 thousand years after the big bang. 8. The A) B) C) D) E) core of the Milky Way is a region of intense star forming activity. has a very low density of stars. does not contain a supermassive black hole. is 3000 light years thick. is shaped like a lens. 9. The A) B) C) D) E) Magellanic clouds are poorer in hydrogen and helium, with a high percentage of metals. are richer in hydrogen and helium, with fewer metals. contain only young, blue stars. are spiral galaxies located millions of light-years away from us. are elliptical galaxies located millions of light-years away from us. 10. When a supermassive black hole swallows an entire star, A) it creates a gamma-ray burst. B) it leaves the star’s planets behind. C) it goes unnoticed. D) it creates an active galactic nucleus. E) it destroys the accretion disk surrounding the black hole. 11. Having a supermassive black hole at the center of a galaxy A) is not rare, but it is not common either. B) is a very rare condition. C) is found only in galaxies of moderate size and larger. D) appears to be a common, ordinary aspect of a galaxy. E) is found only in galaxies far away from us. 1 12. Less than 2 % of our universe is believed to be A) made up of dark energy. B) within range of our telescopes. C) made up of observable matter. D) affected by the force of gravity. E) made up of dark matter. 13. We A) B) C) D) E) 14. The A) B) C) D) E) don’t need to see the dark matter directly. We can infer its existence by observing the emission of X-rays as it falls into black holes. measuring the pressure it applies to surfaces in our laboratories. looking at how it affects the motion of the planets. looking at how it affects the motion of our interplanetary spacecraft. looking at the bending of light rays passing through it. best evidence for the existence of dark matter is its emission of gamma-ray bursts. the acceleration of the expansion of the universe. the high spin rate of galaxies. its affect on dark energy. its emission of X-rays. Winter 2008 Video 8 – The Universe: Alien Galaxies Page 21 AS103 – Descriptive Astronomy Video 9 – The Universe: Beyond the Big Bang The questions on this sheet are from the course question database and have an equal probability of appearing on a test with any other question from the lab, textbook, sample tests or study guide. The only way to obtain the answers to these questions is to watch the video. The answers to these questions are not published. 1. What is the currently accepted age of the universe? A) 2 billion years B) 2 million years C) 13.7 billion years D) 10,000 years E) 9 billion years 2. The A) B) C) D) E) Big Bang theory is really only valid for the time before one second after the beginning of the expansion. only a description of the aftermath of the bang. one of mathematics, with no support from observational evidence. theory of physics, not cosmology. only one of many theories about the universe, accepted by scientists. 3. The A) B) C) D) E) Milky Way is one of 125 billion three dozen or so 125 million 125 trillion a few thousand galaxies that make up the visible universe. 4. Places like Stonehenge and Chich´n Itz´ were e a A) tools of observation B) calendars C) cultural centers D) temples to the gods E) probably all of these 5. The A) B) C) D) E) , helping to make sense of the dancing universe. whole history of cosmology is the desire of astronomers to understand the motion of the planets. the struggle to maintain Earth’s central position. dominated by the Church. a slow evolution of religious beliefs. the retreat of Earth from center stage. 6. Einstein thought of space-time as a fabric, A) weaving mass and time together. B) weaving space and time together. C) weaving mass, space and time together. D) weaving space and mass together. Winter 2008 Video 9 – The Universe: Beyond the Big Bang Page 22 7. General relativity modified special relativity A) because special relativity was incomplete in its description of light. B) because special relativity proved to be wrong. C) to include gravity. D) to include the quantum theory of the atom. E) because special relativity was incomplete in its description of mass. 8. General relativity was a new theory of gravity. One that told us that A) space and time can not be merged with quantum mechanics. B) spatial and temporal intervals must be handled separately in our calculations. C) space and time are interwoven by mass. D) space and time are absolute. E) space and time are curved in the presence of matter. the presence of . 9. Space-time A) has no effect on; light B) can respond dynamically to; matter C) has no effect on; matter D) is rigid in; matter E) is rigid in; light 10. The the mass of an object, the gravity. A) larger; lower; stronger B) smaller; greater; stronger C) larger; greater; weaker D) larger; greater; stronger E) larger; lower; weaker 11. One A) B) C) D) E) its distortion of the space-time fabric, the of the consequences of Einstein’s general relativity is that the universe must be expanding or contracting. must be a steady state type universe. must suffer the big rip. must be static. can not have a beginning. 12. “The universe isn’t static but is actually expanding,” was a claim made by served. A) Georges Monsignor Lemaˆ ıtre B) Vesto Slipher C) Albert Einstein D) Harlow Shapley E) Edwin Hubble 13. The A) B) C) D) E) the effects of in 1927, before it was ob- primeval atom is the first atom formed during the epoch of fusion. the first atom formed during the recombination epoch. the first atom formed during the inflation epoch. Lemaˆ ıtre’s infinitely dense, hot, “cosmic egg.” the gravitational quantum which become the solar system. Winter 2008 Video 9 – The Universe: Beyond the Big Bang Page 23 14. The observation that the galaxies are all moving away from each other was announced in A) 1991; G. Smoot B) 1916; A. Einstein C) 1929; A. Einstein D) 1919; H. Shapley E) 1929; E. Hubble by . 15. Creation of the hydrogen used in stellar nucleosynthesis was sidestepped in the Steady State theory by saying it A) has always been around. B) was created in the first stars. C) was created out of the background radiation. D) was created out of the dark matter. E) out of the dark energy through, E = mc2 . 16. George Gamow claimed hydrogen and helium were created A) in the first stars. B) out of the background radiation. C) out of the dark energy through, E = mc2 . D) by the Big Bang. E) out of the dark matter. 17. The A) B) C) D) E) Big Bang allows us the make a model of what the universe was like right-back to when everything was a tiny fraction of a second old. to when the first stars formed. to when the first galaxies formed. to when the first atoms formed. before it started to expand. 18. Inflation A) created the “primeval atom.” B) is still happening. C) is an expansion of the universe at speeds greater than the speed of light. D) explains why the universe started to expand. E) is predicted by the original Big Bang theory. 19. Inflation happened, most likely, A) when the universe was 380,000 years old. B) just as gravity split off from the unified forces. C) when the universe was about 100 seconds old. D) when the first stars formed, and then exploded, causing the inflation. E) just as the first atoms were forming. 20. Besides strongly supporting the inflation theory, data from the composition, shape and evolution of the universe. A) COBE mission B) WMAP mission C) Hubble Space Telescope D) Mars rovers E) Spitzer Space Telescope Winter 2008 also gave us concrete clues to the age, Video 9 – The Universe: Beyond the Big Bang Page 24 21. 13.7 A) B) C) D) E) 22. On A) B) C) D) E) billion years after the Big Bang, our universe is now 320 billion light-years across. 13.7 billion light-years across. 13.7 billion light-years in radius. 75 billion light-years across. 156 billion light-years across. a grand scale and one a microscopic scale, the electromagnetic force will aid gravity in slowing down the expansion. expansion overwhelms gravity, and everything rips apart. the universe is guaranteed to expand forever. the strong nuclear force will aid gravity in slowing down the expansion. gravity will hold the universe together. Winter 2008 Video 9 – The Universe: Beyond the Big Bang Page 25 AS103 – Descriptive Astronomy Video 10 – The Planets: Different Worlds The questions on this sheet are from the course question database and have an equal probability of appearing on a test with any other question from the lab, textbook, sample tests or study guide. The only way to obtain the answers to these questions is to watch the video. The answers to these questions are not published. 1. What is the order of the planets? A) Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, B) Venus, Mercury, Earth, Mars, C) Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, D) Mars, Venus, Earth, Mercury, E) Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Jupiter, Saturn, Saturn, Jupiter, Jupiter, Saturn, Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, Uranus Uranus, Neptune Uranus, Neptune Uranus, Neptune Uranus, Neptune 2. When was Pluto discovered? A) 1930 B) 1846 C) 1908 D) 1781 E) 1987 3. How A) B) C) D) E) fast are the winds on Saturn? 10,000 meters per hour 1000 miles per hour 100 meters per hour 10,000 miles per minute 10,000 miles per hour 4. What is the atmosphere of Mars made of (mostly)? A) oxygen B) carbon dioxide C) nitrogen D) carbon monoxide E) water vapor 5. What is so very different about Earth from the rest of the planets? A) It has minerals. B) It has a solid surface. C) It has water. D) It has vulcanism. E) It has life. 6. What idea was first suggested by Emmanuel Kant and Simon De La Place? A) The formation of the Moon from Earth-orbiting dust. B) The formation of the Sun after the formation of the planets. C) The solar nebula hypothesis. D) The existence of canals on Mars. E) The existence of Pluto from the orbital anomalies of Neptune. Winter 2008 Video 10 – The Planets: Different Worlds Page 26 7. What did German scientist, Werhner von Braun do (during WWII) before joining NASA? A) He fled the Nazis by escaping to England. B) He built liquid fueled rockets for the United States Army. C) He fled the Nazis by escaping to Russia. D) He worked with Albert Einstein. E) He designed and built the V2 rocket for Hitler. 8. What is the second stage of planet formation called? A) accession B) fusion C) augmentation D) bombardment E) accretion 9. When was Sputnik launched? A) 1972 B) 1958 C) 1930 D) 2001 E) 1962 10. What were the first surface features observed on Mars (by spacecraft)? A) canals B) mountains C) valleys D) craters E) volcanoes 11. When did we first visit Mercury (by spacecraft) and what surprising surface feature did we find there? A) 1974; craters B) 1974; ice caps C) 1964; geysers D) 1964; volcanoes E) 1974; canals 12. When was the Arizona meteor crater made and how big was the object that made it? A) 50,000 years ago; 500 feet in diameter B) 500 years ago; 500 feet in diameter C) 50,000 years ago; 50 feet in diameter D) 5,000 years ago; 50 feet in diameter E) 10,000 years ago; 50 feet in diameter 13. When did Shoemaker-Levi-9 hit Jupiter (month and year)? A) July, 1974 B) July, 1994 C) February, 1987 D) January, 1930 E) June, 1908 14. When did the formation of the solar system end? A) One billion years ago. B) Four million years ago. C) Four trillion years ago. D) One trillion years ago. E) It hasn’t. Winter 2008 Video 10 – The Planets: Different Worlds Page 27 15. What are Uranus and Neptune made of (mostly)? A) hydrocarbons B) helium C) water D) carbon dioxide E) silicate rock 16. How do we explain the formation of Uranus and Neptune? A) They formed from left-over hydrogen and helium. B) They formed from the collision of Kuiper belt objects. C) They formed from the accretion of comets. D) They formed from left-over rock and other material. E) We can’t. 17. What is the Kuiper Belt? A) A source of comets about one light-year from the Sun. B) Another name for the proto-planetary disk surrounding the Sun. C) A collection of mostly icy material at the outer edge of the solar system. D) A source of material for the formation of planets. E) A stage in the development of planets. 18. Why is Pluto the solar system’s “odd ball”? A) It is very small. B) Its orbit is very inclined to the ecliptic. C) It is not made of normal planetary materials. D) It has an extremely elliptical orbit. E) All of these. Winter 2008 Video 10 – The Planets: Different Worlds Page 28 AS103 – Descriptive Astronomy Video 11 – The Universe: The Inner Planets The questions on this sheet are from the course question database and have an equal probability of appearing on a test with any other question from the lab, textbook, sample tests or study guide. The only way to obtain the answers to these questions is to watch the video. The answers to these questions are not published. 1. Venus is considered our sister planet because of A) its similarity in density. B) its similarity in size. C) its similarity in gravity. D) its similarity in composition. E) all of these. 2. Venus’ rotation A) is nearly the same as the Earth’s. B) may have been reversed by a meteor impact. C) is faster than the other inner planets. D) causes the planet to be completely covered with clouds. E) causes Venus to orbit the Sun backwards. 3. On Venus, A) one solar day lasts about eight Earth months. B) there is no day/night cycle. C) it is always day because the sunlight is diffused around the planet by the clouds. D) one solar day is the same length as on Earth. E) it is always night because the clouds block all sunlight from the surface. 4. Without the greenhouse effect A) vegetation on Earth would be far more prolific. B) land-based life on Earth would not be possible. C) Venus’ surface environment would be just like Earth’s. D) Earth’s atmosphere would not be breathable. E) it’s not clear that life would exist on the Earth. 5. The A) B) C) D) E) reason it’s so hot on Venus is because of its 5% CO2 atmosphere. of its 95% O2 atmosphere. Venus has no oceans. Venus has complete cloud cover. of its 95% CO2 atmosphere. 6. The A) B) C) D) E) main source of the CO2 gas in the atmosphere of Venus is the solar wind. comet impacts. its oceans. volcanoes. meteor impacts. Winter 2008 Video 11 – The Universe: The Inner Planets Page 29 7. In a A) B) C) D) E) planet’s atmosphere, lightning is triggered by cosmic rays. extreme heat. magnetic fields. thunder. electrical currents. 8. On the surface of Venus, light is diffused and scattered by the clouds, so A) there’s no nighttime. B) there’s a blue sky, just like Earth’s. C) there’s no daylight. D) only infrared light is available at the surface. E) there’s no shadows and an orange sky. 9. The A) B) C) D) E) highest mountain on Venus is lower than the lowest Earth mountain. about like the Appalachian Mountains. the highest mountain in the solar system. just a little lower than Mount Everest. higher than Mount Everest. 10. A Mercury year is shorter than a Mercury day. A) equal to a Mercury day. B) equal to an Earth day. C) shorter than a Mercury day. D) longer than a Mercury day. E) shorter than an Earth day. 11. Mercury has more impact craters on its surface than Earth because it A) is closer to the Sun. B) has no atmosphere. C) has no moon to protect it. D) is a bigger target than Earth. E) was hit more often. 12. The A) B) C) D) E) largest impact crater in the solar system is Tycho crater, on the Moon. Empirium Basin, on Mercury. Caloris Basin, on Mercury. Hellinus crater, on Mars. Imbrium Basin, on the Moon. 13. The volcanoes on Mercury are . A) strato; higher gravity B) cinder cone; lower gravity C) shield; lower gravity D) cinder cone; higher gravity E) shield; higher gravity 14. The A) B) C) D) E) volcanoes, but wider and flatter than those on Earth, due to Mercury’s Messenger spacecraft (launched 2004) is a mission to map the surface of Pluto. Mars. Venus. Mercury. Saturn’s moons. Winter 2008 Video 11 – The Universe: The Inner Planets Page 30 AS103 – Descriptive Astronomy Video 12 – The Universe: Mars The questions on this sheet are from the course question database and have an equal probability of appearing on a test with any other question from the lab, textbook, sample tests or study guide. The only way to obtain the answers to these questions is to watch the video. The answers to these questions are not published. 1. The A) B) C) D) E) most likely planet for human colonization is Mars. Jupiter (a moon of). Saturn (a moon of). Mercury. a planet orbiting a near-by star. 2. Mars lost its atmosphere to the solar wind when A) its mantle solidified. B) its volcanoes stopped erupting. C) its iron core solidified. D) it lost its protective magnetic field. E) its ice caps formed. 3. During an approach to Mars from space, the first noticeable surface features are A) monstrous volcanoes. B) expansive deserts. C) craters. D) the polar ice caps. E) huge valleys. 4. When a small meteor impacts Mars, A) it hits layers of dust causing a major dust storm. B) there isn’t much left after burning up in the atmosphere. C) it can create a crater much larger than an equivalent impact on Earth. D) it causes layers of rock to be spread radially over hundreds of kilometers from the impact site. E) it hits permafrost, melting it and causing a mud flow. 5. The A) B) C) D) E) is the first to observe and record “canali” on Mars. astronomer Percival Lowell Giovanni Schiaparelli Herbert Wells Edwin Hubble Carl Sagan 6. A civilization on Mars would need to transport water from the poles (possible via canals) because A) their population would quickly become too large for their natural rivers to support. B) the canals can also be used for transport of commercial goods. C) all of Mars is a cold, dry, desert. D) water near the equatorial regions would contain far too much iron oxide to be usable. E) canals are a major engineering feat for any civilization. Winter 2008 Video 12 – The Universe: Mars Page 31 7. Olympus Mons appears to be three separate volcanoes because A) its slope is too shallow to be a single volcano. B) it was the cause of the Valles Marineris canyon structure. C) there are other, very large volcanoes close to it. D) it has three calderas. E) it’s a shield volcano. 8. Valles Marineris A) is up to 120 miles across. B) is up to four miles deep. C) is still unexplained. D) is as long as the United States. E) is all of the above. 9. The A) B) C) D) E) 1976 Viking landers were sent to Mars and found signs of life in the soil. and crashed on the surface. but found no signs of life in the water. but found no signs of life in the soil. and found signs of life in the water. 10. The initial, unusual feature about the meteorite, ALH84001 was . A) its green color; the high level of carbonates B) its gray color; the high level of carbonates C) its brown color; the high level of carbonates D) its brown color; its location in Antarctica E) its gray color; its location in Antarctica and the second surprise about it was 11. Where on Mars may it be possible for microbial life to be found today? A) Along the shores of dried up oceans. B) Along the shores of dried up rivers. C) In the shadow of crater walls. D) The polar icecaps. E) At the bottom of deep craters. 12. The A) B) C) D) E) Mars rovers have such as to explore Mars. geographic tools; a global positioning system advanced computer software; map interpretation geological tools; the rock abrasion tool mechanical advances; dual-powered drive wheels video cameras; a dual-core CCD 13. Hematite is a mineral formed and was found by the rovers on Mars. A) in an nitrogen-rich atmosphere B) by water wave action C) in the presence of water D) in an oxygen-rich atmosphere E) by microbial lifeforms Winter 2008 Video 12 – The Universe: Mars Page 32 14. The A) B) C) Phoenix Mission is going to place a stationary lander on Jupiter’s moon, Europa, to look for signs of life in its sub surface-ice-layer oceans. on Jupiter’s moon, Io, to observe the volcanism and measure the changes in the composition of the surface. on Mercury, to determine the chemical composition and observe the effects of the intense solar wind at the surface. D) on Venus, to take photographs of the surface and to determine the chemical composition of the rocks. E) at the Martian north pole to analyze soil, ice and interactions with the atmosphere. Winter 2008 Video 12 – The Universe: Mars Page 33 AS103 – Descriptive Astronomy Video 13 – The Universe: The Moon The questions on this sheet are from the course question database and have an equal probability of appearing on a test with any other question from the lab, textbook, sample tests or study guide. The only way to obtain the answers to these questions is to watch the video. The answers to these questions are not published. 1. At last count, over A) 250 B) 150 C) 100 D) 200 E) 50 2. Our A) B) C) D) E) moons populate our solar system. moon is an averaged sized moon. the largest in relation to its host planet. the smallest in the solar system. the largest in the solar system. the smallest of the inner planets. 3. On the Moon the sky is always black because A) there is no daytime on the Moon. B) the Moon does not rotate in its axis. C) the sunlight is not reflected from its surface. D) it has no oceans to create the blue skies. E) there are no air molecules to scatter the sunlight. 4. On the Moon, an astronaut’s spacesuit could not protect him from A) solar ultraviolet radiation. B) volcanic ash. C) the absence of atmospheric pressure for more than 30 minutes. D) micrometeorites. E) solar wind. 5. The A) B) C) D) E) Moon’s regolith is produced by geysers. volcanic vents. the solar radiation. cosmic rays. meteorites and micrometeorites. 6. Mountains on the Moon are created by A) tectonic plate motions. B) asteroid impacts. C) ancient volcanism. D) current volcanism. E) moonquakes. Winter 2008 Video 13 – The Universe: The Moon Page 34 7. Most cultures used a lunar calendar rather than a solar calendar because A) there are fewer days in a month than in a year. B) the motion of the Moon is related to the motion of the constellations. C) the growing seasons follow the Moon rather than the Sun. D) they would live to an older age. E) the motion of the Moon is related to the tides. 8. The Moon’s gravity keeps the , keeping the seasons consistent, and sustaining a habitable environment for life on Earth. A) shape of the Earth’s orbit consistent B) Earth’s axial tilt stable C) Earth’s rotation rate constant D) Earth’s orbital speed constant E) tides on a consistent schedule 9. This A) B) C) D) lunar formation theory has a flaw in its prediction of the iron content of the Moon. George Darwin’s lunar fission theory of 1878. Thomas See’s lunar capture theory of 1909 William Hartman’s giant impact theory of 1974. ´ Edouard Roche’s lunar co-accretion theory of 1873. 10. This lunar formation theory has a flaw in it could not bring the Earth and Moon together. A) William Hartman’s giant impact theory of 1974. B) George Darwin’s lunar fission theory of 1878. C) Thomas See’s lunar capture theory of 1909 ´ D) Edouard Roche’s lunar co-accretion theory of 1873. 11. This lunar formation theory has a flaw in it could not bring the Earth and Moon together. A) George Darwin’s lunar fission theory of 1878. B) William Hartman’s giant impact theory of 1974. C) Thomas See’s lunar capture theory of 1909 ´ D) Edouard Roche’s lunar co-accretion theory of 1873. 12. Because of tides, the Moon is moving away from the Earth at the rate of A) 3.8 centimeters per month. B) 3.8 meters per year. C) 3.8 miles per month. D) 3.8 centimeters per year. E) 3.8 miles per year. 13. Lunar rocks have A) breccias. B) no silicates. C) basalts. D) high levels of water. E) no volatiles. 14. This lunar formation theory is the currently accepted theory for the formation of the Moon. A) Thomas See’s lunar capture theory of 1909 B) George Darwin’s lunar fission theory of 1878. ´ C) Edouard Roche’s lunar co-accretion theory of 1873. D) William Hartman’s giant impact theory of 1974. Winter 2008 Video 13 – The Universe: The Moon Page 35 15. The A) B) C) D) E) Moon was formed following the giant impact. in roughly a hundred years in less than a year in roughly ten years in only a month in roughly a thousand years Winter 2008 Video 13 – The Universe: The Moon Page 36 AS103 – Descriptive Astronomy Video 14 – The Planets: Atmospheres The questions on this sheet are from the course question database and have an equal probability of appearing on a test with any other question from the lab, textbook, sample tests or study guide. The only way to obtain the answers to these questions is to watch the video. The answers to these questions are not published. 1. What event first led us to understand that Venus has an atmosphere? A) Galileo’s observations of the phases of Venus. B) Landing on Venus. C) A solar transit of Venus in the 1700s. D) Observations of Venus by the Hubble Space Telescope. E) Placing an orbiter around Venus. 2. What was the main worry for the first landing on Venus? A) Passing through the intense lightning. B) Passing through the sulfuric acid rain. C) Passing through the cloud deck. D) Landing in a volcano. E) Landing in an ocean. 3. What happened to Venera 4? A) It took one picture of its own foot. B) It crashed on the surface and was never heard from. C) It missed its target and went into orbit around the Sun. D) Nothing. It functioned for years on the surface. E) It was crushed by the atmospheric pressure. 4. How A) B) C) D) E) thick is the cloud deck of Venus? It is equal to the hight of the Venusian mountains. The same thickness as Venus’ atmosphere. 60 miles. The same as Earth’s. It does not have a cloud deck. 5. What is Venusian drizzle (rain) made of? A) Water. B) Ice. C) Ammonia. D) Sulfuric acid. E) Hydrochloric acid. 6. What color is the sky on Mars (don’t jump to conclusions like they did...)? A) Red B) White. C) Green. D) Dark gray. E) Yellow. 7. Does Mars ever have blue skies? A) Yes, at noon. B) No, never. C) Yes, at sunset. Winter 2008 Video 14 – The Planets: Atmospheres Page 37 8. What planet-wide physical phenomenon prevented Venus from having an ocean? A) The greenhouse effect. B) Tides. C) Volcanism. D) Complete cloud cover. E) “Venus” quakes. 9. What does the greenhouse effect do for the Earth? A) Adds about 50◦ F to the average temperature. B) Adds about 2◦ F to the average temperature. C) It decreases the average temperature by 100◦F. D) It keeps the Earth from completely freezing over. E) Adds about 20◦ F to the average temperature. 10. What is the dominant weather on Venus? A) Snow storms. B) Rain. C) Cold. D) Dust storms. E) Hot. 11. What is the dominant weather on Mars? A) Cold. B) Rain. C) Snow storms. D) Hot. E) Dust storms. 12. What planet has a storm that has lasted for at least 300 years? A) Uranus B) Venus C) Saturn D) Jupiter E) Neptune 13. How long has the red spot been seen on Jupiter? A) 350 years B) 1000 years C) About 10 years. D) 60 years E) Since it was first observed by cavemen. 14. What was the main disappointment of the Galileo probe? A) The atmospheric probe missed Titan. B) It found no helium on Jupiter. C) The atmospheric probe was crashed as it feel in. D) Its communications system failed. E) It found no water in the atmosphere of Jupiter. 15. What moon of Saturn are astronomers most interested in? A) Titan B) Ganymede C) Miranda D) Io E) Europa Winter 2008 Video 14 – The Planets: Atmospheres Page 38 16. What is the atmosphere of Saturn’s moon, Titan, made of (mostly)? A) ammonia B) nitrogen C) carbon monoxide D) oxygen E) methane Winter 2008 Video 14 – The Planets: Atmospheres Page 39 AS103 – Descriptive Astronomy Video 15 – The Universe: Jupiter The questions on this sheet are from the course question database and have an equal probability of appearing on a test with any other question from the lab, textbook, sample tests or study guide. The only way to obtain the answers to these questions is to watch the video. The answers to these questions are not published. 1. Jupiter is A) 14% B) 99% C) 84% D) 80% E) 10% hydrogen and 84% helium. hydrogen and 1% metals. hydrogen and 14% helium. water and 20% hydrogen and helium. hydrogen and 90% ammonia, methane, hydrogen sulfide and other chemicals. 2. Of all the mass of the planets A) 70% B) 99% C) 40% D) 90% E) 50% is in Jupiter. 3. Jupiter’s electromagnetic radiation A) could be handled adequately in terms of building shelters for colonists. B) could kill a traveler to the planet in an instant. C) is the strongest in the known universe. D) is no real problem for the shielding of spacecraft components. E) is equivalent to that of the Sun. 4. Some astronomers believe Jupiter A) might be a failed star. B) should be a star because of its chemical composition. C) might yet become a star because it is generating so much heat. D) could be converted into another star. E) could gather enough mass and one day become a star. 5. Earth, and the life on it, A) is very different from the environment and life found on Europa. B) may owe its existence to Jupiter’s cleaning up the inner solar system of meteoroids. C) may owe its existence to the life that once existed on Mars. D) may be the result of the Moon’s orbital period. E) is now known to be absolutely unique in the solar system. 6. If the comet that hit Jupiter in 1994 had hit the Earth, A) it would have left a small crater, like the one in Arizona, because Earth has a very hard crust. B) the Earth, like Jupiter, would have recovered in a matter of a couple of years, with no real, lasting effects. C) the effects would have been similar to the event that wiped out the dinosaurs. D) it would have burned-up in our atmosphere, leaving very little left to hit the ground, because comets are mostly water. E) it probably would have hit the ocean, leaving no real, lasting effect. Winter 2008 Video 15 – The Universe: Jupiter Page 40 7. In August of 3BC, where in such close alignment in the Bethlehem.” A) Jupiter and Saturn; western B) Saturn and Venus; western C) Jupiter and Venus; eastern D) Saturn and Venus; eastern E) Jupiter and Saturn; eastern sky that they may have been the “star of 8. The A) B) C) D) E) Great Red Spot was first observed in 1665. was discovered by the Voyager spacecraft in 1977. has been observed on Jupiter since prehistoric times. was first seen by Galileo. was discovered by the Galileo spacecraft in 1995. 9. The A) B) C) D) E) winds in the Great Red Spot become very calm at the Red Spot’s large eye. are very calm, like those on a summer’s day. average well over 1000 miles per hour. rotate in the opposite direction from what astronomers expected. are about 350 miles per hour. 10. The A) B) C) D) E) 29 belts and zones of Jupiter’s atmosphere would be fewer if Jupiter had fewer moons gravitationally interacting with the planet’s atmosphere. are exaggerated versions of Earth’s jet stream. would become completely chaotic and dissolve if it weren’t for Jupiter’s powerful magnetic field. would be fewer and broader if Jupiter were lower mass. would consist of higher-speed winds if Jupiter’s rotation rate were slowed. 11. Scientists believe there is an ocean of water below the A) ice cover of Europa. B) nitrogen atmosphere of Ganymede. C) ice cover of Io. D) top sulfur layer of Europa. E) cloud cover of Jupiter. 12. We A) B) C) D) E) 13. The A) B) C) D) E) life, if it exists on Europa. expect to see only microbial small animal fairly advanced simple, but multicellular only viral type magnetic field of Jupiter creates a problem for radio communications on Earth. is too large to see from Earth. is too small to be seen from Earth. creates a weak electrical current in the planet. is the largest entity in the solar system. 14. Jupiter A) generates 10 million amperes of electrical current. B) uses its internal heat to create a magnetic field. C) has a weak magnetic field, creating its aurora. D) has an electrical current flowing between itself and Saturn. E) has a small electrical current in its mantle, producing its magnetic field. Winter 2008 Video 15 – The Universe: Jupiter Page 41 15. Jupiter’s ring A) is a product of Europa’s volcanoes. B) has dissipated since it was first observed. C) is slowly breaking up and will soon disappear. D) will soon rival Saturn’s. E) comes from material knocked off of one of the interior moons. 16. On A) B) C) D) E) Jupiter, in 2007, three small, white colored storms first seen in the 1930s, finished merging but then dissipated. each changed color to yellow and then merged to form one larger storm. merged, broke apart, and dissipated. finished merging, changed color and became the Little Red Spot. finished merging, changed color and became the Little Dark Spot. Winter 2008 Video 15 – The Universe: Jupiter Page 42 AS103 – Descriptive Astronomy Video 16 – The Universe: Saturn The questions on this sheet are from the course question database and have an equal probability of appearing on a test with any other question from the lab, textbook, sample tests or study guide. The only way to obtain the answers to these questions is to watch the video. The answers to these questions are not published. 1. Because of its high rotation rate, A) Saturn will have a ring system forever. B) Saturn’s rings are divided into may sections. C) Saturn is shaped as an oblate spheroid. D) Saturn’s moons have highly elliptical orbits. E) Saturn’s rings will eventually be absorbed in the planet. 2. Saturn’s rings are A) so wide, it would take a month to cross them in our fastest spacecraft. B) in orbits outside the orbits of Saturn’s moons. C) 65 feet thick. D) thin enough that a spacecraft could easily pass through them. E) quickly breaking up and will soon fade away. 3. How A) B) C) D) E) 4. We A) B) C) D) E) many ring regions does Saturn have? 6 8 7 5 9 are very interested in the F-ring because it is the fastest orbiting ring. is the outer most ring. tells us how moons interact with rings. interacts strangely with the other rings. is the smallest ring in the system. 5. Until spacecraft in orbit around Saturn could monitor it, A) Io’s volcanoes were unknown. B) Saturn’s rings could not be accurately measured because they are too thin to see from Earth. C) Titan’s surface could not be seen at all. D) Triton’s nitrogen geysers were unknown. E) Saturn’s weather patterns were hidden by an ammonia-gas haze over the planet. 6. The A) B) C) D) E) hurricane at the south pole of Saturn has the same structure and the Great Dark Spot on Neptune. has no eye. has an eye, but eye-wall, making it similar to, but not the same as Earth hurricanes. has the same structure as the Great Red Spot on Jupiter. has an eye-wall like hurricanes on Earth, making it the only such hurricane on another planet. Winter 2008 Video 16 – The Universe: Saturn Page 43 7. Titan is the only moon A) orbiting Uranus. B) to have a yet smaller moon in orbit around it. C) having a breathable, oxygen-based atmosphere. D) other than our own, to have been explored. E) to have one face locked toward its host planet. 8. Titan A) was too soft to support the weight of the Huygens probe at it sank on impact. B) has an atmosphere that was denser than expected and the Huygens probe was crushed shortly after entry. C) has a thick cloud cover, making observations of the surface by the Huygens probe impossible. D) has a gooey surface. Neither solid nor liquid. E) has a surface just like Earth’s – partly rock, partly water. 9. Titan’s atmosphere is A) mostly carbon dioxide. B) almost pure methane. C) ten times the mass of Earth’s atmosphere. D) about 50/50 nitrogen and oxygen. E) full of water vapor, which was unexpected. 10. Titan’s atmosphere is nitrogen and methane, A) with large turbulence patterns causing the creation of acidic clouds. B) a combination of gasses that are lethal to life. C) which is extremely corrosive, causing the Huygens probe to fail with in a few minutes of landing. D) which warms the surface by a greenhouse effect. E) the same as Earth’s early atmosphere. 11. The A) B) C) D) E) mountains on the surface of Titan are made from silicate rock, shaped by rivers of methane. silicate rock, shaped by rivers of water. frozen methane and the terrain is shaped by rivers of methane. basalts and breccias and the terrain is shaped by rivers of nitrogen. silicate rock, shaped by rivers of nitrogen. 12. The A) B) C) D) E) interior of Enceladus is so hot that massive volcanic eruptions are a constant occurrence on it surface. has cooled off completely, so Enceladus is solid rock. is heated by the tidal forces of Saturn. is nothing more than water. may be made of mostly carbon and oxygen. 13. Enceladus is the object in the solar system because . A) dimmest; it has volcanoes. B) brightest; the ice from its geysers has fallen back onto the surface. C) brightest; the soil from its geysers has fallen back onto the surface. D) brightest; it has volcanoes. E) dimmest; the soil from its geysers has fallen back onto the surface. 14. The A) B) C) D) E) search for water in our solar system is need to refuel our exploratory spacecraft. necessary for our survival here on Earth. ultimately the search for life. is being carried out by the SETI project. completely futile. Winter 2008 Video 16 – The Universe: Saturn Page 44 AS103 – Descriptive Astronomy Video 17 – The Universe: The Outer Planets The questions on this sheet are from the course question database and have an equal probability of appearing on a test with any other question from the lab, textbook, sample tests or study guide. The only way to obtain the answers to these questions is to watch the video. The answers to these questions are not published. 1. Pluto was originally (in 1930) called a planet because A) it was the largest object in the outer solar system. B) it has a moon. C) it was larger than an asteroid. D) there was nothing else to call it. E) it was closer to the Sun than Neptune. 2. The A) B) C) D) E) Hubble Space Telescope shows us that parts of Pluto are as dark as rock and parts are bright as snow. shows us that Pluto’s largest moon, Charon, has geysers. discovered that Pluto has geysers. shows us that all three of Pluto’s moons are very small compared to Pluto. discovered that Pluto has a moon. 3. Pluto’s gravity is roughly A) one one-hundredth of the Earth. B) one half of the Earth. C) twice that of the Earth. D) three time that of the Earth. E) one fifteenth of the Earth. 4. The A) B) C) D) E) one dominant feature we will probably see on Pluto is impact craters. mountains. valleys. volcanoes. huge tidal cracks. 5. Pluto was demoted from planethood because A) the International Astronomical Union could not reach a consensus on the definition of a planet. B) the government did not want to fund the exploration of that many planets. C) Pluto does not have the same general characteristics as Neptune Uranus and the other outer planets. D) of public protest. E) of the discovery of a larger objects in the Kuiper Belt such as, Eris (with moon, Dysnomia). 6. A planet is now defined as a spherical object that orbits the Sun and A) has at least one moon. B) clears out the neighborhood around its orbital path. C) has orbital velocity in proportion to its distance. D) meets the requirements of the Titus-Bode law. E) has a sufficient (minimum) size. Winter 2008 Video 17 – The Universe: The Outer Planets Page 45 7. Dwarf planets have the same characteristics as planets but A) do not have orbital velocity proportional to its distance from the Sun. B) do not have sufficient mass. C) do not have a clear orbital path. D) do not have a moon. E) do not have sufficient size (diameter). 8. Under the new definition, A) almost all the members of the asteroid belt may become minor planets. B) Ceres, the largest asteroid in our system, is also a dwarf planet. C) most of the members of the asteroid belt may be re-labeled as planets. D) comets may become re-labeled as minor planets. E) Mercury and Venus may lose their planet status because the have no moons. is currently on its way to 9. A spacecraft called A) Cassini; Saturn B) New Horizons; Pluto C) Galileo; Jupiter D) Cassini; Pluto E) New Horizons; Uranus and Neptune . 10. Uranus and Neptune A) are two of the four “gas giants” of the solar system. B) are also known as the “ice giants.” C) were formed at least one billion years after the rest of the planets. D) have the chemical composition as Jupiter and Saturn. E) have the chemical composition as the Sun. 11. Uranus A) has unexplained storm systems at both poles. B) has belt and zone weather systems, just like Jupiter. C) was observed by astronomers before Galileo, but was not recognized as a planet. D) has more moons than Jupiter. E) was the first planet discovered by telescope. 12. The A) B) C) D) E) Hubble Space Telescope has observed surface features on Uranus. found a second set of moons around Uranus, almost twice as far from the planet as the first set. can observe Uranus, but only as a few pixels. found a Great Red Spot just like Jupiter’s, on Uranus. found a second set of rings around Uranus, almost twice as far from the planet as the first set. 13. Uranus rings are A) likely the result of collisions between its dozen or so inner, high speed moons. B) in extremely elliptical orbits about the planet. C) too thin and too dark to be well-explained by any physical processes we have devised so far. D) are interfering with the orbits of Uranus’ moons. E) likely to disappear within the next few years. 14. Neptune has the of any planet. A) largest diameter B) densest atmosphere C) greatest density D) highest wind speeds E) deepest atmosphere Winter 2008 Video 17 – The Universe: The Outer Planets Page 46 15. The A) B) C) D) E) Great Dark Spot is a storm on Pluto. Uranus. Saturn. Jupiter. Neptune. 16. Neptune has probably captured most of its moons from A) the Oort Cloud. B) the Kuiper Belt. C) passing star systems. D) the Asteroid Belt. E) passing comets. 17. Neptune’s moon, Triton, is so cold, A) it has nitrogen ice caps. B) its oceans are completely frozen over. C) it has a carbon dioxide atmosphere. D) because it was a Kuiper Belt object. E) it has water-ice geysers. Winter 2008 Video 17 – The Universe: The Outer Planets Page 47 AS103 – Descriptive Astronomy Video 18 – Nova: The Doomsday Asteroid The questions on this sheet are from the course question database and have an equal probability of appearing on a test with any other question from the lab, textbook, sample tests or study guide. The only way to obtain the answers to these questions is to watch the video. The answers to these questions are not published. 1. When did the Tunguska event occur? (Pay close attention to get this one.) A) Winter, 1905 B) June, 1889 C) Summer, 1972 D) Summer, 1928 E) June, 1908 2. What kind of object caused the Tunguska event? A) meteoroid B) meteorite C) meteor D) comet E) asteroid 3. What are asteroids made of and where do they come from? A) ice and dust; the Oort Cloud B) iron and stone; the asteroid belt C) iron and stone; the Oort Cloud D) ice and dust; the asteroid belt E) iron and stone; the Kuiper Belt 4. What are comets made of and where do they come from? A) iron and stone; the Oort Cloud B) iron and stone; the asteroid belt C) ice and dust; the Kuiper Belt D) ice and dust; the asteroid belt E) iron and stone; the Kuiper Belt 5. Why is it easier to find meteorites on the Australian Nullarbor? A) Their are no trees to interfere with their reaching the ground. B) The softer ground allows them to stay whole, rather than disintegrating when they hit. C) Their dark surface shows up well against the lighter colored ground. D) Their light colored surface shows up well against the dark colored ground. E) They have shiny metallic surfaces which show up against the darker ground. 6. A fusion crust is the melted, outer layer of material A) on a meteorite. B) on a comet. C) on a meteoroid. D) on an asteroid. E) of a stellar core. Winter 2008 Video 18 – Nova: The Doomsday Asteroid Page 48 7. What keeps the planets moving in predicable orbits around the Sun? A) The Sun’s gravity. B) The Sun’s magnetic field. C) The interaction between the magnetic fields of the Sun and planets. D) Interplanetary dust, causing friction. E) The Sun’s electric field. 8. Why are there so few impact craters on the Earth? A) The Earth’s atmosphere protects us from being hit by any meteors. B) The Earth is younger than the other planets. C) The Moon protects the Earth from impacts. D) Weather and erosion buries the craters. E) The Earth has not been hit as much as the other planets. 9. What is the Oort cloud? A) The cloud system surrounding the equatorial regions of Neptune. B) A large, disk shaped collection of icy bodies in the outer solar system. C) The cloud system surrounding the equatorial regions of Venus. D) A large collection of icy bodies completely surrounding the solar system. E) The cloud system surrounding the equatorial regions of Mars. 10. How many Earth crossing asteroids are larger than A) about 20 B) about 20000 C) about 500 D) about 2000 E) about 200 1 2 mile in size? 11. What is the worst thing that could happen if we tried to divert an asteroid from hitting the Earth? A) We don’t use enough explosive and it does a near-miss, over heating the atmosphere. B) We blow it up with a bomb, but simply break it in two. C) We blow it up with a bomb and the pieces rain down on us. D) It hits the Moon instead. E) It goes into orbit about the Earth. 12. How much energy was released by nucleus G? A) 600 million megatons B) 600 megatons C) 6 megatons D) 6 million megatons E) it was not measurable 13. On A) B) C) D) E) Las Vegas odds, what is the equivalent risk of the Earth being hit by an asteroid? About the same as a typical American dying on an airplane crash. About the same as a person being hit by lightning. About the same as any other natural disaster. About 1 in 7. About the same as a person being hit by a car. Winter 2008 Video 18 – Nova: The Doomsday Asteroid Page 49 AS103 – Descriptive Astronomy Video 19 – The Universe: The Search for ET The questions on this sheet are from the course question database and have an equal probability of appearing on a test with any other question from the lab, textbook, sample tests or study guide. The only way to obtain the answers to these questions is to watch the video. The answers to these questions are not published. 1. The A) B) C) D) E) chemicals used in the Miller-Urey experiment are found only in extreme conditions. common throughout the solar system. not normally found on Earth. found only in the Sun. common only on Earth. 2. Liquid water was A) not needed for the Miller-Urey experiment at all. B) needed only in the first stage of the experiment. C) not originally used in the experiment, but added later. D) very useful, but the experiment may have succeeded without it. E) critical for the Miller-Urey experiment. 3. For A) B) C) D) E) intelligent alien life to travel in space, they would have to think, look and act like humans. think like humans would be coincidental. think like humans they would have to look like humans. look like humans would be coincidental. exist, they would have to look like humans. 4. The A) B) C) D) E) moon most likely to harbor life is Deimos. Phobos. Earth’s moon. Europa. Miranda. 5. Europa has twice the amount of liquid water as A) Jupiter. B) the Moon. C) Venus. D) Mars. E) Earth. 6. Europa get heated by A) Jupiter’s magnetic field. B) internal radioactivity. C) the radioactive environment of Jupiter. D) Jupiter’s infrared radiation. E) tidal heating. Winter 2008 Video 19 – The Universe: The Search for ET Page 50 7. Europa’s surface has A) geysers emitting organic compounds. B) bits of organic compounds brought in by comets. C) a rocky surface formed by flowing water. D) ice floes with dark, organic material. E) liquid water. 8. Life A) B) C) D) E) on Europa may find nutrients in the geothermal vents at the bottom of Europa’s ocean. ice covered methane lakes on the surface. small moon’s atmosphere. middle layers of ice just below the liquid surface. rivers flowing on the surface. 9. The A) B) C) D) E) danger of exploring for life on Europa with a lander is having the lander freeze-over in the frigid environment on the surface. in polluting the moon with life from Earth. in landing on soft ice and sinking in the ocean. the inability to move around on the surface. executing a soft landing in Europa’s very strong gravity. 10. Organisms which can live under conditions that would normally kill are called A) virophobes. B) extremophiles. C) viruses. D) terraphiles. E) eurcrophobes. 11. The A) B) C) D) E) 12. An A) B) C) D) prospect of finding more than primordial extra-terrestrial life in the solar system is slim at best. basically, nonexistent. fair at best. very good. about 50/50. extraterrestrial signal at only one frequency, not a broad band of frequencies, is an example of an emission from a planetary storm. one indication of a radio signal not made by nature. probably coming from a pulsar. very unlikely because the interstellar medium spreads the radio energy out over the spectrum. 13. SETI operates on the premise I. of “absence of evidence is not evidence of absence.” II. that there must be at least one other civilization in the billions of possible planetary systems. A) I B) I and II C) II 14. Based on the possibilities from our advances in technology, our first interaction with aliens may A) be very beneficial to them. B) prove fatal to them. C) be with alien machines rather than biological creatures. D) be very beneficial to us. E) prove fatal to us. 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