Lecture 3 - Lecture 3 Hyper and hypotonic(osmotic always a...

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Hyper and hypotonic (osmotic): always a comparison Things I did not talk about last time, but that are in the notes Nissl Stain Chromatolysis The resting membrane potential Idea for the generation of the resting membrane potential: Julius Bernstein How to check out the Bernstein hypothesis? Bernstein is almost right 1. Compare the measured to the predicted value the resting membrane potential for a muscle is around 100 the predicted value comes from the nerst equation Nernst Equation Is derived from the following consideration: to move a given amount of an ion across the membrane against a concentration gradient, we have to perform work. An equation giving that relationship is W = nRTln[X1]/[X2] where W is work performed to move n moles of X against a concentration gradient of [X1]/[X2] ; R is the gas constant and T is the absolute temperature Similarly the work required to move n moles of a charged molecule X against an electrical gradient is W = nzFE, where n is the moles of X moved, z is the valence on X, F is the faraday constant (number of coulombs of charge in a mole), and E is the electrical potential At equilibrium, the amount of work done by the concentration gradient is equal and opposite to that done by the electrical gradient
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Lecture 3 - Lecture 3 Hyper and hypotonic(osmotic always a...

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