Ch. 4- microbio- prokaryotic profiles

Ch. 4- microbio- prokaryotic profiles - Barbara Moore...

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Barbara Moore Chapter 4 [Cowan-Talaro] –Prokaryotic profiles I. Prokaryotic cell structure [Fig. 4.1] A. External structures & functions 1. Flagella [Fig. 4.2 – 4.4] 2. Axial filaments (periplasmic flagella in spirochetes) [Fig. 4.6] 3. Fimbriae & pili [Fig. 4.7, 4.8] 4. Glycocalyx [Fig. 4.9, 4.10] - Slime layer - Capsule - Role in biofilm formation [Insight 4.1] B. Cell wall/membrane(s) [Fig. 4.12] 1. Peptidoglycan as scaffolding, found only in prokaryotic Bacteria [Fig. 4.13] 2. Gram positive cell wall [Fig. 4.14] - uniquely contains teichoic acids 3. Gram negative cell wall [Fig. 4.14] - outer membrane contains lipopolysaccharides (LPS) - peptidoglycan within periplasmic space 4. Acid-fast bacteria - Mycobacterium sp. 5. Cell membrane (cytoplasmic membrane): phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins - selectively permeable, controlling transport of materials into and out of cell 6. Function of the cell wall [Fig. 7.4, pg. 189] - isotonic, hypotonic, hypertonic environments C. Internal structures 1. Genetic material (DNA): chromosome(s) in nucleoid; plasmids 2. Ribosomes 3. Storage bodies 4. Cytoskeleton in some bacteria 5. Endospores in some bacteria (e.g., Bacillus & Clostridium ) [Fig. 4.21, Table 41.] - survival structure for bacterium - medical significance D. Bacterial shapes [Figs. 4.22, 4.23] 1. Coccus 2. Baccillus 3. Spiral, curved - vibrio -spirillum - spirochete E. Bacterial arrangements [Figs. 4.22, 4.23] 1. diplo- (two) 2. strepto- (chain) 3. staphylo- (grape cluster) 4. palisades (picket fence)
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II. Unusual prokaryotic cells A. Mycoplasma 1. Lack a true cell wall B. Rickettsia 1. Obligate intracellular parasites (metabolically deficient) 2. Transmitted between mammals by arthropods (biological vectors) 3. Diseases: typhus, Rocky Mountain spotted fever C. Chlamydia 1. Obligate intracellular parasites (metabolically deficient) 2. Diseases: trachoma, chlamydiosis (most common sexually-transmitted disease in USA; > 1 x 10 6 cases reported in 2006) III. The “other” prokaryotic cells – Archaea A. Share features with Eukarya [Table 4.3] B. Live in extreme environments – not suited to grow within an animal/human host 1. Methanogens 2. Thermophiles, Hyperthermophiles (grow at elevated temperatures) 3. Extreme halophiles (grow in high salt environments) IV. Study suggestions A. Case File 4 B. Multiple choice & True/False: 1, 2, 4 – 6, 8, 11, 15, 16 1) d- actin cytoskeleton are not found in all bacterial cells
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Ch. 4- microbio- prokaryotic profiles - Barbara Moore...

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