microbio prokaryotes- jan 25

microbio prokaryotes- jan 25 - Chapter4 ProkaryoticCells

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Chapter 4 Prokaryotic Cells
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Classification of Cellular Organisms
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Prokaryotic Cells:   Bacteria  and  Archaea
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Domain  Archaea [prokaryotic cells generally living in “extreme” environments] Halophiles Methanogens
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Deep sea thermal vent communities:    [ life based on chemolithotrophic, chemoorganotrophic  bacteria] Black smokers
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Cell Walls Almost all  Bacteria  can be grouped as Gram (+) or Gram (-)
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Bacterial cell wall structure:   Reflects Gram stain [+ or -] From: Nester et.al., Microbiology: A Human Perspective (4 th ed), McGraw Hill (2004) D-amino acids:  resistant  to degradation by most  peptidases  Peptidoglycan is unique to  Bacteria  Peptidoglycan structure  functions as cell wall  ‘scaffolding’  
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Gram-positive Cell Wall NOTE:  Gram (+) cell  wall does  NOT   contain a periplasmic  space
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Gram-negative Cell Wall NOTE:  Gram (-) bacteria  DO  contain a periplasmic space as shown.
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Lipopolysaccharide   O Antigen Lipid A embedded in outer  membrane e.g., E. coli O157:H7
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Gram Staining distinguishes on basis of Cell Wall From: Tortora et. al., Microbiology: An Introduction (8 th ed), Benjamin Cummings (2004)
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Cell Wall protects single cell microbes from bursting  in hypotonic environment Click on image  for hyperlink
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Cell Wall synthesis determines bacterial  cell shape
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microbio prokaryotes- jan 25 - Chapter4 ProkaryoticCells

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