Biomechanics

Biomechanics - 1 BIOMECHANICS Biomechanics - the...

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1 BIOMECHANICS Biomechanics - the application of mechanical laws to living structures, specifically to the locomotor system of the human body. I. Uses of Biomechanical Analyses • Improvement of sports skill techniques • Design of sports equipment • Prevention of injuries • Clinical analysis of movement pathologies • Design of prostheses • Design of rehabilitation devices Qualitative analysis - a non-numerical description of a movement based on direct observation. Conducted primarily by teachers and coaches. Quantitative analysis - a movement is analyzed numerically based on measurements from data collected during the performance of the movement. Conducted by researchers. II. Levers of the Human Body Refer to Unit 13 in Lab Manual. Mass – the quantity of matter contained in an object. Units = kilograms (kg) Force – mass X acceleration. Units = Newtons (N) 1 N = (1 kg) (1 m/s 2 ) Weight – the amount of gravitational force exerted on a body Weight = mass X acceleration of gravity = ma g Acceleration of gravity = 9.81 m/s 2 Units of weight – Newtons
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2 If a person has a mass of 80 kg, his weight = (80 kg) (9.81 m/s 2 ) = 785 N Torque – the product of force and the perpendicular distance from the force’s line of action to the axis of rotation. It may be thought of as rotary force. Units = Newton-meters (N·m) Moment arm – the perpendicular distance between the force’s line of action and the axis of rotation. Mechanical advantage of a lever – the ratio of force arm length to resistance arm length Volume – the amount of space that a body occupies Pressure – force distributed over a given area. Units = N/cm 2 P = F/A Compression – pressing or squeezing force directly axially through a body Tension – pulling or stretching force directly axially through a body Shear – force directed parallel to a surface Mechanical stress = F/A Similar to pressure. Lifting A Heavy Object From the Floor
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Biomechanics - 1 BIOMECHANICS Biomechanics - the...

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