body composition

body composition - 1 BODY COMPOSITION Anthropometry...

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1 BODY COMPOSITION Anthropometry – quantitative measures of selected human landmarks. Body composition - two-component model - the amount of fat and fat-free mass of which the body is composed. Fat-free mass is primarily composed of bone, muscle, vital organs, and connective tissue. Four-component model - fat, protein, mineral, water Why assess body composition? Suitable body composition is important for health. Establish reasonable fatness ranges for athletes in various sports Accurate measures of body composition are needed to develop sound weight reduction programs Knowledge of bone mineral content in women and children is important. Monitor changes in body composition associated with disease. I. Essential Fat vs. Storage Fat Essential fat - fat that is required for normal physiological functioning - structural components of cell membranes, required for the synthesis of certain hormones, transport of fat-soluble vitamins,etc. Storage fat - fat that is stored in adipose tissue for energy supply purposes. It is located underneath the skin, in the abdominal cavity, and around certain organs.
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2 II. Body Composition of Males vs Females The average male is taller, heavier, has a larger muscle mass, and a lower total body fat content. For reference male and female, age 20 - 24: Storage fat - female = 15% - male = 12% Essential fat - female = 12% - male = 3% Female has sex specific fat depots in the breasts, pelvic and thigh regions, and probably other areas. "Male type" obesity - excess fat is deposited on the upper torso and around the abdomen. Male type obesity is associated with higher health risks. "Female type" obesity - excess fat is deposited below the waist in the thighs, hips, and buttocks (ie) pear shape. After menopause females begin depositing more fat in the abdominal area III. Obesity The combination of diabetes and obesity is one of the largest epidemics the world has faced. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing around the world and the obese are becoming more severely obese. In the past dozen years, scientists have discovered that adipose tissue is not simply a passive storehouse for fat, but an endocrine organ that secretes more than a dozen peptide and non-peptide compounds that trigger changes throughout the body. When fat cells expand they release more of some of these compounds and less of others. Examples – leptin, adiponectin, inflammatory proteins, etc.
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3 Causes of the Obesity Epidemic 1. Weight gain and obesity occur when energy intake exceeds energy expenditure – too much food and too little activity. For most of human history, survival meant avoiding starvation – our bodies are set up to deal with scarcity, not abundance. 2.
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This note was uploaded on 02/01/2010 for the course KIN 142 taught by Professor Asmundson during the Spring '09 term at Simon Fraser.

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body composition - 1 BODY COMPOSITION Anthropometry...

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