Motor Learning

Motor Learning - 1 MOTOR LEARNING Motor Learning a...

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1 MOTOR LEARNING Motor Learning - a relatively permanent change in the performance levels of a motor task as the result of practice. I. MOTOR SKILLS Motor Skill - denotes an act or task that has a goal to achieve and that requires voluntary body or limb movement to be properly performed. The acquisition of a motor skill is a process in which the learner develops a set of motor responses into an integrated and organized movement pattern. Skill, unlike talent, is a consequence of training and practice. A. Characteristics of Skillful Motor Performance 1. Production of a fast output of high quality. 2. An appearance of ease and smoothness of movement. 3. An anticipation of variations in the stimulus situation before they arrive. 4. Reduction in time to make a choice of responses once the signal is identified. B. Types of Variables That Affect The Learning of a Motor Skill 1. Input variables - involve the capacity of a performer to understand directions, to judge velocities of objects in a complex space field, as well as his ability to perceive his own movements. 2. State of the performer - maturation, tension and arousal, motives, etc. 3. Nature of the practice afforded - whether practice is massed or distributed, whether a skill is practiced as a whole or in parts, or whether the skill is a component in a series.
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2 C. Motor Skill Classification Systems Determine which components of a skill are common or similar to components of another skill. For each classification system, consider each of the two categories as extreme ends of a continuum. #1. Based on precision of movement: This classification system is most commonly used in special education, adapted physical education, and rehabilitation. Gross motor skills - involve large musculature as the primary basis of movement - walking, throwing, jumping, most sport skills . While precision of movement is not an important component, the smooth coordination of movement is essential to the skilled performance of these tasks. Fine motor skills - skills that require the ability to control small muscles of the body in order to achieve the successful execution of the skill. Generally, these skills involve hand-eye coordination and require a high degree of precision of movement - writing, drawing, piano playing, watchmaking Physical therapists usually work with gross motor skills while occupational therapists work on fine motor skills. #2. Based on distinctiveness of beginning and end points of the movement: This classification system is most commonly used by motor learning researchers and in human engineering and human factors. Discrete motor skill - clearly defined beginning and end points - throwing a ball,
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Motor Learning - 1 MOTOR LEARNING Motor Learning a...

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