psych ch. 13

psych ch. 13 - Chapter 13: Sexual and Gender Identity...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 13: Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders Sexual Norms and Behavior Gender and Sexuality • More report more engagement in sexual thought than women • For women, sexuality appears more closely tied to relationship status and social norms than for men (ex: women tend to engage less in sexual activities like masturbation when they are not in a relationship; men do not experience the same shift when a relationship ends) • Men are more likely to think about their sexuality in terms of power than are women • Men develop more sexual dysfunctions as they age, such as erectile dysfunctions; in contrast, sexually active older women report fewer sexual problems than younger women do • Gender differences seem to be remarkably consistent across cultures—studies find that biology may shape men’s desires for many lifetime partners more than culture does The Sexual Response Cycle 1. Appetitive phase : Introduced by Kaplan, this stage refers to sexual interest or desire, often associated with sexually arousing fantasies. 2. Excitement phase : During this phase, men and women experience pleasure associated with increased blood flow to the genitalia. Women also experience increased blood flow to the breasts. This flow of blood into tissues shows up in men as erection of the penis and in women as enlargement of the breasts and changes in the vagina, such as increased lubrication 3. Orgasm phase : In this phase, sexual pleasure peaks in ways that have fascinated poets and the rest of us ordinary people for thousands of years. In men, ejaculation feels inevitable and indeed almost always occurs (in rare instances, men have an orgasm with ejaculating, and vice versa). In women, the outer walls of the vagina contract. In both sexes there is general muscle tension 4. Resolution phase : This last stage refers to the relaxation and sense of well-being that usually follow an orgasm. In men there is an associated refractory period during which further erection and arousal are not possible. The duration of the refractory period varies across men and even in the same man across occasions. Women are often able to respond again with sexual excitement almost immediately, a capability that permits multiple orgasms. Sexual Dysfunctions Clinical Descriptions of Sexual Dysfunctions • The DSM-IV-TR divides sexual dysfunctions into four categories: o Sexual desire disorders o Sexual arousal disorders o Orgasmic disorders o Sexual pain disorders • The dysfunction should be persistent and recurrent and should also cause marked distress or interpersonal problems • A diagnosis of sexual dysfunction is not made if the problem is believed to be due entirely to a medical illness (such as diabetes or major depression) • Women are more likely to report symptoms of sexual dysfunction than men, but men are much more likely to meet diagnostic criteria and be distressed/impaired by it Sexual Desire Disorders • The DSM distinguishes two kinds of sexual desire disorders...
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This note was uploaded on 02/01/2010 for the course PSYC 333 taught by Professor Wilson during the Fall '09 term at Tulane.

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psych ch. 13 - Chapter 13: Sexual and Gender Identity...

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