slide notes ch1-8

slide notes ch1-8 - Prelude: Hydrosphere- surface water on...

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Unformatted text preview: Prelude: Hydrosphere- surface water on the earth, along with ground water that fills cracks and holes in rocks or sediment underground Atmosphere- an envelope of gas consisting of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and minor elements. Geosphere Biosphere- the living organisms I nside the earth: Layers : Chemical: Crust- (silicates) continental (mostly felsic & intermediate but has mafic)oceanic (mafic: sediment layer, basalt layer, gabbro layer) the most abundant element in crust is OXYGEN Mantle : (iron and magnesium silicates) ultramafic peridotite, upper mantle-transition zone-lower mantle Core : composed of an iron alloy. Outer core (liquid magma), inner core (solid) Physical : Lithosphere : rigid- crust and upper mantle (in motion over the asthenosphere) Asthenosphere: plastic- portion of the mantle where rock can flow Mesosphere: solid- the rest of the mantle Scientific method: Observe-> working hypotheses -> tests -> eliminate hypotheses -> test again - > draw conclusions -> develop theory Ch 2. I nterlude D Earth : sphere, rotates, has oceans and continents, is composed of solids liquids and gases. Scientific method used on earth: Observations: Earth is a rotating sphere (+many more). There must be something inside. Hypothesis: There have been numerous. Inside the earth is layered. Earth is homogeneous. Earth is hollow. Earth is made of molten magma. Earth is made of gold. Tests: drill- deepest well ~ 12 km, mine ~ 3.5 km Gravity to test density: plumb bob (know angle & mass of bob, mass of mountain- can calculate) Density= Mass/Volume The density of material inside the earth is greater than the density of material at the surface. DENSER MATERIAL IS LOCATED IN THE EARTH. EARTH IS LAYERED ACCORDING TO DENSITY (EX. EGG AND ITS LAYERS=EARTH AND ITS LAYERS) What is the earth made of? Evidence from earthquakes: by detecting depths at which earths wave velocities change, can pinpoint boundaries between layers. AT BOUNDARIES BETWEEN LAYERS OF DIFFERENT DENSITIES/VELOCITIES, L IGHT WAVES ARE BENT. WHEN THE COMPOSITION OF THE LAYER CHANGES, THE WAVE IS REFRACTED (faster material: colder/denser slower material: warmer/less dense) REFRACTION OCCURS WITH SEISMIC WAVES TOO Seismic waves: absence provides clues to composition of center of earth: physical layers, depths of each transition P-waves: compressional, faster, travel through liquid and solid | | | | | | | | | | | | | (pushpull) S-waves: shear (deform), slower, travel through only solids ~~~~~~ (shake) Both are body waves- travel through the body of the earth rather than the surface Energy travels as rays along multiple ray paths- earthquakes Evidence from meteorites (chondrites): chondrites are thought to represent the bulk composition of the earth at formation....
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slide notes ch1-8 - Prelude: Hydrosphere- surface water on...

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