{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

slide notes ch1-8

slide notes ch1-8 - P relude H yd rosphere surface water on...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Prelude: Hydrosphere - surface water on the earth, along with ground water that fills cracks and holes in rocks or sediment underground Atmosphere - an envelope of gas consisting of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and minor elements. Geosphere Biosphere - the living organisms Inside the earth: Layers : Chemical: Crust - (silicates) continental (mostly felsic & intermediate but has mafic)oceanic (mafic: sediment layer, basalt layer, gabbro layer) the most abundant element in crust is OXYGEN Mantle : (iron and magnesium silicates) ultramafic peridotite, upper mantle-transition zone-lower mantle Core : composed of an iron alloy. Outer core (liquid magma), inner core (solid) Physical : Lithosphere : rigid- crust and upper mantle (in motion over the asthenosphere) Asthenosphere: plastic- portion of the mantle where rock can flow Mesosphere: solid- the rest of the mantle Scientific method: Observe-> working hypotheses -> tests -> eliminate hypotheses -> test again - > draw conclusions -> develop theory Ch 2. Interlude D
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Earth : sphere, rotates, has oceans and continents, is composed of solids liquids and gases. Scientific method used on earth: Observations: Earth is a rotating sphere (+many more). There must be something inside. Hypothesis: There have been numerous. Inside the earth is layered. Earth is homogeneous. Earth is hollow. Earth is made of molten magma. Earth is made of gold. Tests: drill- deepest well ~ 12 km, mine ~ 3.5 km Gravity to test density: plumb bob (know angle & mass of bob, mass of mountain- can calculate) Density= Mass/Volume The density of material inside the earth is greater than the density of material at the surface. DENSER MATERIAL IS LOCATED IN THE EARTH. EARTH IS LAYERED ACCORDING TO DENSITY (EX. EGG AND ITS LAYERS=EARTH AND IT’S LAYERS) What is the earth made of? Evidence from earthquakes: by detecting depths at which earth’s wave velocities change, can pinpoint boundaries between layers. AT BOUNDARIES BETWEEN LAYERS OF DIFFERENT DENSITIES/VELOCITIES, LIGHT WAVES ARE BENT. WHEN THE COMPOSITION OF THE LAYER CHANGES, THE WAVE IS REFRACTED (faster material: colder/denser… slower material: warmer/less dense) REFRACTION OCCURS WITH SEISMIC WAVES TOO Seismic waves: absence provides clues to composition of center of earth: physical layers, depths of each transition
Background image of page 2
P-waves: compressional, faster, travel through liquid and solid | | | | | | | | | | | | | (pushpull) S-waves: shear (deform), slower, travel through only solids ~~~~~~ (shake) Both are body waves - travel through the body of the earth rather than the surface Energy travels as rays along multiple ray paths- earthquakes Evidence from meteorites (chondrites): chondrites are thought to represent the bulk composition of the earth at formation. EARTH: oxygen, iron, silicon, magnesium, other. 3 rock types for the lithosphere: Granite- continental crust Basalt- oceanic crust Peridotite - upper mantle Ch 3 interlude A PLATE TECTONICS Topography - physical features of land Bathymetry - physical features of sea floor -mid-ocean mountain ranges -deep trenches at continental margins & wide shallow continental margins -linear chains of seamounts -volcanoes -continental mountain ranges plate tectonics theory:
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}