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Unformatted text preview: Lab 1: Introduction to Phylogeny & Tree-Thinking Goals and Objectives At the end of this laboratory you should be able to : 1. Explain how a cladogram is a hypothesis about evolutionary relationships 2. Read a cladogram and analyze the information presented 3. Describe the kinds of data used in phylogenetic inference 4. Construct a data matrix 5. Use simple parsimony to map characters onto trees 6. Construct alternative trees for a given number of taxa 7. Learn to identify the most parsimonious tree from a set of trees 8. Explain the concept of homology and give an example 9. Explain the concept and causes of homoplasy and give an example. Things to discover: Station A . Reading a tree . Can you interpret the relationships among taxa on a tree? How does the rotation of nodes in a tree affect the relationships among taxa? Station B . Identifying homologies . How do we identify a homologous character? What degree of similarity must be present in two features to indicate common descent? Station C. Identifying homoplasies. How do we identify a homoplasious character? What kinds of similarity might indicate independent character evolution? Station D. Monophyletic groups and Linnaean ranks. What is a monophyletic group? How can monophyletic groups be distinguished from non-monophyletic groups? Station E. Behavioral characters in classification. Can a behavioral pattern be a homologous character? Station F. Variable support for a phylogeny. Why are biologists very confident in their understanding of some evolutionary relationships and less confident in their understanding of others? Lab 2: Bacterial & Archaeal Diversity Goals and Objectives At the end of this laboratory you should be able to : 1. Explain what is meant by an unrooted tree 2. Explain how the position of a tree root alters evolutionary interpretations 3. Distinguish among the three domains of life 4. Describe the diversity within Bacteria 5. Describe the diversity within Archaea 6. Explain the inferred features of LUCA 7. Evaluate phenotypic and molecular characters for phylogenetic analyses, considering the role of convergent evolution 8. Explain why lateral gene transfer is problematic for phylogeny. Things to discover: Station A. Classification of Bacteria and Archaea. Are phenotypic characters useful in bacterial or archaeal phylogeny? Why do you think the bacterial and archaeal trees are poorly resolved? Station B. Rooting the Tree of Life. What is the difference between a rooted and unrooted tree? How does the location of a tree root influence our understanding of evolution? Station C . The last universal common ancestor (LUCA). Which characters are shared by archaeons? Which characters are shared by bacteria?...
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