Unformatted text preview: Oil in the Ocean – Chocolate Mousse Introduction Crude Oil Spills in the Marine Environment Toxic Fractions and Actions Oil Spill Remediation Policy How Science Contributes to Sound How Management Management Conclusions Sources of Oil Pollution in the Environment Sources of Marine Oil Pollution Marine Petroleum Inputs Oil Weathering and Dispersal Oil Weathering- a change in physical properties and composition of oil over time; more exposed to the elements, the more rapidly it weathers. So What Causes the Chocolate Mousse? Emulsification Process- formation of a water-in-oil Emulsification mixture. Occurs with different oils and is much more likely to occur different under high energy conditions (winds and waves). under Impacts cleanup by significantly increasing the volume and viscosity of the oil to be collected. NOAA Glossary of Standard Oil Spill Observation Term Toxic Effects of Oil to Fish and Wildlife Surface coating – the hypothermia and negative buoyancy resulting from the matting of fur or feathers. matting Direct toxic actions – ingestion, inhalation, absorption of oil, resulting in biochemical damage (narcosis, tumors, etc.). damage Relative Sensitivities of Petroleum Relative Hydrocarbon Toxicities Initial Decision-Making Considerations Do nothing – if a spill is far off shore and not threatening valuable resources, let it degrade naturally. degrade Do something – if a spill is close to shore and directly threatening valuable resources, it should be treated. should The cost/benefit ratio factors into the The cost/benefit decision. decision. There There are at least five general ways in which five spills may be treated. spills Remediation Techniques Recovery – removal via the use of booms, collecting agents (e.g. straw), and mechanical skimmers. mechanical Burning – combustion only works well on fresh oil. fresh Sinking – use of agents that cause oil to sink to the bottom of the sea. to Dispersal – use of detergents (dispersants) to disperse oil into the water column and off the surface. the Bioremediation – Use of bacteria to degrade the oil. the Booms and Skimmers to Remove Oil Burning and the Use of Dispersants Beach Cleaning Via Hot Water or Microbes 1989 Exxon Valdez Spill hit Bligh reef Spilled 11 million gallons of Prudhoe Bay Crude Oil in Prince William Sound, AK ~1,300 miles of coastline impacted, lead to Pacific Herring population crash, impaired fisheries Deployed booms, used dispersant, burned about 30,000 gallons, open water recovery with skimmers 2007 Cosco Busan Spill hit Bay Bridge 58,000 gallons of fuel oil oiled ~200 miles of coastline, ~2,000 birds killed, crab fishing impacted fishing Skimmers, booms, Skimmers, evaporation and natural dispersion dispersion 2009 Dubai Star Spill Oil was being transferred from a barge to an oil tanker --fuel tank overfilled 400-800 gallons of Bunker fuel ~40 birds killed, fishing and shellfish harvesting suspended skimmers, patrol boats, helicopters, utility boats and approx. 11,000 feet of boom Considerations in Remediation Efficacy – How effective will the technique be with the specific oil and sea state conditions of a particular event? state Toxicity – How will a selected technique impact local biological resources? impact Information of Use to Responders Efficacy – A relative ranking of the effectiveness of different remediation techniques with various oils and under varying sea state conditions. varying Toxicity – Evaluation of the toxic impacts of different remediation techniques on the most sensitive life stages of potentially impacted biological resources. impacted Goal – To provide relative information via a consistent approach to provide more reliable information. reliable Efficacy – The Standard Swirling-Flask Test (SFT) compare dispersants and oil types Rapid and simple SFT- evaluate the performance of chemical dispersants Compare dispersants and oil Efficacy – The Standard SwirlingFlask Test Different states of weathering Use same dispersant Effectiveness varies with oil type, sea energy, oil conditions, salinity, etc. Fresh Oil Weathered Oil Toxicity – Early Life Stage Evaluation Abalone Veliger Larvae Mysid Toxicity – Comparative Results Abalone Veliger Larvae Mysids Conclusions Oil Oil in the environment has many sources. many Oil degrades over time by the processes of “weathering.” “weathering.” Oil causes direct toxic effects and coating Oil direct problems. problems. Oil needs treating if it poses a threat to resources. resources. Remediation essentially enhances natural Remediation weathering. weathering. There are several remediation choices. There remediation Science provides information needed to Science provides ...
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- Fall '09
- FUEL OIL, Exxon Valdez oil spill, Oil Spill Remediation, Standard Oil Spill