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Venom - Animal Toxins Chemical Warfare Why Chemical Warfare...

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Animal Toxins – Chemical Warfare!! Why Chemical Warfare? Types and Actions of Venoms Some Animals that use Venoms Conclusions
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Basic Types of Venoms Passive – animals are poisonous following ingestion of poisons from their diet. Active – animals that deliver venoms by specialized structures, such as fangs, stingers, spines, etc.
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Basic Actions of Venoms Hematoxic – destroy tissues by digesting proteins; either thinning or thickening the blood. Neurotoxic – act at neuromuscular junctions to cause skeletal muscle paralysis. Cardiotoxic – act to selectively paralyze the heart, causing heart failure.
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Some Classes of Venomous Animals Cnidarians – jellyfish, sea anenomes, Portuguese men-or- war. Molluscs – gastropods (conch); some 85 poisonous species. Reptiles – snakes and lizards. Amphibians – frogs and toads. Fishes – approximately 700 known poisonous species. Arthropods – spiders, scorpions, bees, etc. All 30,000 species of spiders are venomous.
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I. Marine Cnidarians Jellyfish, sea anenomes, Portuguese men-or-war, etc. Stinging nematocysts within cnidoblast cells – used for defense, predation, locomotion. Responsible for sticky feeling of anemones.
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