Chapter 2 - Chapter 2 Partisan Politics and Redistricting...

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Chapter 2 – Partisan Politics and Redistricting in Texas Nineteenth-Century Republicans The Republican Party did not exist as an official organization in Texas until 1867, although the provisional governor (AJ Hamilton) appointed by President Andrew Johnson in 1865 was a Republican. African Americans Texans were unable to vote under President Johnson and as a result Democrat J.W. Throckmorton (a Unionist) was elected governor in Texas in 1866. Then the US Congress stepped in and under congressional reconstruction, African Americans gained the right to vote, military rule was imposed, former Confederates were disqualified from voting, and Throckmorton was expelled from office. o The federal military commander appointed Elisha M. Pease governor. Pease resigned in 1869 which led to the gubernatorial campaign between “Republican Radical” Edmund J. Davis and former governor (moderate republican) A.J. Hamilton. o Davis won. o Davis was the last Republican governor in Texas for 107 years. In 1872, Congress restored political rights to most former Confederates. In 1874, when the new Democratic legislature convened and the newly elected governor (Richard Coke) prepared to take office, Davis barricaded himself in the state capitol. He was waiting for a response from President Ulysses S. Grant to an appeal for federal troops—Grant denied this appeal. The Republican Party remained largely a part of African Americans and Norris Wright Cuney was the African American party leader from 1883-1896. o Republican congressman Robert B. Hawley served until 1901. Republican Gains in Congress and the State Legislature Congress The first republican elected to Congress from Texas in the 20 th century was Harry M. Wurzbach in 1920. Republican Ben Guill won a seat temporarily in a special election in 1950. Bruce Alger was elected to congress from 1955-1965. Ed Foreman was elected to congress in 1962. o Both Alger and Foreman were defeated in 1964 when their congressional districts were redrawn as part of a statewide redistricting. Republicans George H.W. Bush and Robert D. Price were elected to congress in 1966 James M. Collins was elected to congress in 1968. Legislature The most prominent of Republicans in legislature was Julius Real who served 5 terms in the state senate. __________________________________________________________________ In 1932 the Republicans lost the African American voting bloc as a result of the policies and candidacy of FDR.
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Between 1931 and 1951, no Republican served in the state legislature. o The first Republican state representative elected thereafter was Edward T. Dicker in 1950. o The first Republicans were elected to the state senate in 1966. In 1971 there were only three Republicans in a Texas congressional delegation of twenty- three. As multimember districts were replaced with equipopulous single-member districts, Republican areas, primarily in the suburbs surrounding the largest cities, could more easily elect Republicans to the Texas House.
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