Looming tower - CHAPTER 1 SUMMARY THE MARTYR A middle-aged Egyptian man named Sayyid Qutb came to America in 1948 from Egypt He arrived in New York

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CHAPTER 1 SUMMARY: THE MARTYR A middle-aged Egyptian man named, Sayyid Qutb, came to America in 1948 from Egypt. He arrived in New York where he lived several months, then moved to Washington D.C. to attend school. It was in D.C when Qutb heard about the assassination of his rival, Hasan al-Banna, the Supreme Guide of the Society of the Muslim Brothers. This cleared the way for his conversion to the Muslim Brothers. After several months, Qutb moved to Greenley, Colorado and then to California before he went back to Egypt in 1950. His trip to America was not what he expected in which he said, “Modern values—secularism, rationality, democracy, subjectivity, individualism, mixing of sexes, tolerance, materialism—had infected Islam through the agency of Western Colonialism. America now stood for all that.” Qutb had taken up his old job in the Ministry of Education and returned to his former home in the suburb of Helwan. Qutb wrote a number of sharply critical editorials calling for jihad against the British at the very time Gamal Abdul Nasser, a young army colonel, was negotiating a treaty that would nominally end the occupation. An assassination attempt of Nasser happened in 1954 by a member of the Muslim Brothers was unsuccessful and Qutb was charged with being a member of the Muslim Bothers’ secret apparatus that was responsible for the assassination attempt. Qutb was granted the death penalty but Nasser offered him the post of minister of education as alternative but Qutb refused. Qutb said, “My words will be stronger if they kill me.” Sayyid Qutb was hanged in 1966. Chapter 2-Looming tower I. -Ayman Al-Zawahiri grew up in a quite middle-class suburb called Maadi II. -The Zawahiri name was associated above all with religion; his father was a professor at the local university; His mother (Umayma Azzam) was from clan that was equally distinguished buy wealthier and more political III. -Ayman Al-Zawahiri was known fro being devout from an early age; was an excellent student; and even called a genius by other students IV. -Zawahiri’s uncle Mahfouz was taught Arabic by Sayyid Qutb in the third grade; Mahfouz Azzam became Qutb’s personal lawyer, and was one of the last people to see him before his execution V. -Yont Ayman al Zawahiri heard again and againf from his beloved uncle Mahfouz about the purity of Qutb’s character and the torment he had endured in prison-the same year that Qutb went to the gallows, Zawahiri helped form an underground cell devoted to overthrowing the government and establishing an Islamic state (he was 15 years old) VI. -There were many of these groups of students that were typically small, disorganized and largely unaware of one another, until the war of 1967 with Israel VII. -The 6 day war humiliated many Muslims who had believed until then that god favored their cause; they then thought that god had ruined against Muslims and the only way to get back to him was through pure religion: Islam was the solution
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This note was uploaded on 02/01/2010 for the course GOV 335N taught by Professor Karch during the Fall '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Looming tower - CHAPTER 1 SUMMARY THE MARTYR A middle-aged Egyptian man named Sayyid Qutb came to America in 1948 from Egypt He arrived in New York

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