Readings - Ami Pedahzur The Changing Nature of Suicide...

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Ami Pedahzur – “The Changing Nature of Suicide Attacks – A Social Network” I. Main argument: Instead of focusing on the organization we should focus on the networks, due to the decrease in hierarchical structure suicide attacks. II. Key Points : A. Networks vs. Organizations i. Networks : Leader should be substituted with HUB; Local operative, not known, replaceable, shares with other hubs, NOT hierarchical structure; Elusive (difficult to catch); No distinction between leadership and operatives; They can materialize in a day, change and disappear; Recruitment based on family and friendship; Training is brief ii. Organizations : Goals are to attempt to change policy and achieve objective in the internal political arena III. Network Characteristics A. Size = few dozen activists (need enough people but keep network a secret) IV.Scale free = did not develop randomly or without guidance; hubs are main vehicle in getting various ppl to join the network A. Peripheral nature of suicide bombers = they’re of minor importance; contribute little to the continued operation of the network V. Conclusion A. Large number of hubs and subgroups = high level of effectiveness VI.Concepts to know: A. In the article, these networks are shown as huge webs: B. Nodes - actors in networks with potential contacts with other actors C. Tie - some type of relationship with the node; can be various types of relationships D. Hub – actor of the center of the map where most connections either lead and/or derive from ****Assaf Moghadam “Palestinian Suicide Terrorism in the Second Intifada: Motivations and Organizational Aspects”**** Main Idea This article explores various issues related to Palestinian suicide terrorism by presenting a two- phase model to explain the processes and factors underlying the development of Palestinian suicide bombers, and the execution of suicide bombing attacks. The model is applied to the case of suicide attacks that have occurred in the course of the first 21 months of the Second Intifada, from September 2000 to June 2002. Assaf Moghadam comes to the conclusion that while a counter-terrorism strategy aimed at targeting terrorist organizations may offer short-term gains, in the long run Israel will need to identify ways of removing or reducing the incentives that lead some Palestinians to volunteer for suicide missions. **LOOK AT FIGURE 4 OF ARTICE!!!! The framework of analysis offered here assumes that suicide terrorism is both an individual and an organizational phenomenon; in fact, it assumes that both aspects are integral and necessary parts of the process through which suicide attacks are organized and executed, and thus should be included in any discussion on suicide terrorism. The Israeli–Palestinian case shows that an individual Palestinian who is motivated to become a suicide bomber is likely to lack the resources, information, and organizational capacity needed to perpetrate such an act without the help of an organization. At the same time, it is clear that under normal circumstances, organizations themselves do
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