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MIC 205 - Study Guide (Test 2)

MIC 205 - Study Guide (Test 2) - Antonio Alarcon MIC 205...

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Antonio Alarcon 9/18/07 MIC 205  Study Guide #2 Microbial Growth o Microbe of the Day     Listeria monocytogenes Gram positive (bacillus – rod) Common in environment Lives in monocytes (WBC’s) Intracellular Can move through cell membrane to spread from cell to cell Psychrotroph  – Extremophilic organism, capable of growth and reproduction in cold  temperatures Listeriosis  – Bacterial infection caused by gram-positive, motile  L. monocytogenes .  Noted by  fever, aches, GI, or CNS symptoms 2500 cases each year 500 fatal Occurs primarily in newborn infants, pregnant women (30%), and  immunocompromised patients (70%) Prevention – Pasteurization, avoidance o Growth of Microbes     Increase in the  number  of cells, NOT  size One cell becomes colony of millions of other cells Control of microbial growth is important Infection control Growth of industrial and biotech organisms o Factors Regulating Growth     Nutrients – Chemical substances acquired from the environment Environmental conditions Temperature pH Osmotic pressure O 2  requirements Generation time Time to complete division o Chemical Requirements     Water  – Primary requirement Elements Carbon (50% of cell’s dry weight) Hydrogen Nitrogen Phosphorous Sulfur o Other trace elements (small/minimal value) Organic Glucose – Source of energy
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Vitamins – Coenzymes Amino acids, pruines and pyrimidines o Nutritional Categories     Carbon sources CO 2  –  Autotroph Organic –  Hetertroph Energy sources Sunlight -   Phototroph Organic –  Chemotroph Saprobe – Lives on organic matter of dead organisms Parasite -  Lives on organic matter of living host (pathogens) o Osmosis     Isotonic – Equal tension, intracellular and extra cellular solute concentration are the same Hypotonic – Influx of water, intracellular solute concentration greater than extra cellular solute  concentration Hypertonic – Net diffusion of water out of the cell, intracellular solute concentration lower than  extra cellular solute concentration o Facilitated diffusion     Diffusion from higher to lower concentration with a carrier molecule,  does NOT require  energy o Active transport     Diffusion from lower to higher,  requires energy o Group translocation     Diffusion from lower to higher with chemical change o Bulk transport     Endocytosis, phagocytosis, pinocytosis o Environmental Factors Influencing Growth     Temperature O 2   pH Osmotic Pressure Others: Radiation, atmospheric pressure o Temperature Optima    
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