4-DisksAndOtherIODevices

4-DisksAndOtherIODevices - ECE 485/585 Microprocessor...

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ECE 485/585 Microprocessor System Design Prof. Mark G. Faust Maseeh College of Engineering and Computer Science
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Disks and other I/O Devices Handouts: none (see readings on web site) •T o p i c s – I/O Devices • Keyboards, Mice, etc • Hard Disk Drives – The Memory Hierarchy (again…) – Disk Drive Basics – Disk Geometry – Fragmentation and Bad block handling – Transition-based recording and RLL codes – Performance
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I/O Devices • Keyboards, Mice, etc •M o u s e • Graphics display • Floppy drive •D i s k •CD R
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Typical PC Peripheral Architecture
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Keyboards – Matrix of switches, one per key – Keyboard controller in keyboard Continuously scans matrix for press/release events Pressing key generates its “make code” Releasing key generates its “break code” Enables controller to recognize when two or more keys pressed simultaneously (^C, CTR ALT DEL) Look-up table maps switch coordinates to ASCII code Controller sends “scan code” to controller in PC – Switch Types Mechanical • spring-loaded momentary on switches • “plunger” makes contact Capacitive (similar to mechanical) Membrane (three layer membrane, dome)
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Keyboards – Three connectors still in use AT connector (DIN) (obsolete) PS/2 •U S B – All provide keyboard power •d a t a [clock] •A l
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Mice • “Graphical positioning” or “pointing device” – Light pens – Track balls – Joysticks –M ice • Provide – X,Y position – 1 to 3 buttons – Scroll wheel • Unlike keyboard, provides stream of X,Y
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Mice Mechanical –B a l l – Wheels and shafts – Optical shaft motion detectors Optical – LED or Laser – CMOS sensor –D S P
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Computer Memory Hierarchy: Disks Control Datapath Secondary Storage (Disk) Processor Registers Main Memory (DRAM) Second Level Cache (SRAM) On-C hip Ca che Tertiary Storage (Tape) Third Level Cache (SRAM) I n c r e a s i g S z , D p d C o t / G B Intermediate results Archive Backup Instructions Data [Cached Files] File System Paging Cached DRAM th edition)
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Typical Disk Drive HDA – hard disk assembly VCM – voice coil motor AEM – arm-mounted electronics module
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Typical Disk Drive Cost of coating surfaces (platters) is much less than cost of read/write heads Often manufacturers include the same platter configuration in two different models but omit some of the read/write heads in the smaller capacity model. Cylinder refers to “stack” of tracks on all surfaces at same distance from
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4-DisksAndOtherIODevices - ECE 485/585 Microprocessor...

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