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anth 4 ppt 4

anth 4 ppt 4 - Housekeeping PTAs HW1 due now Opinions on...

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1 Housekeeping b PTAs b HW1 due now b Opinions on HW1? b HW2 assigned today, due next Tuesday, beginning of lecture b MT assignment is posted, will be discussed in section b What words do the following IPA combinations make? b [tu] B b two, too, to b [d ǡ n] B b Don (name), dawn b [r ǫ d] B b read (past tense), red b [rid] B b read (present tense), reed b What are the three factors we use to describe consonants? b Voicing, Place of Articulation, manner of closure b What are the four factors that we use to describe vowels? b Height, frontness, tense/lax, roundness b How many nasals do we have? b B 3 [m,n, ŋ ] b What’s the difference in articulation between a b B Fricative: constricted, with airflow b B Affricate: stop (full closure), then fricative (constricted airflow) b What’s the difference between a phone & a phoneme? b B a phone is a sound b B a phoneme is a concept (idea) of the sound that can link to more than one actual phone. b B Phonemes are contrastive: we recognize phonemes as ‘different’ within a language, while we wouldn’t, without linguistic training, recognize phones as different if they map to the same phoneme (e.g. the different /p/ pronunciations in spit & pit are different phones that map to the same phoneme) s Pit B aspirated [p] s Spit B unaspirated [p] Morphology The study of the structure of words and the rules for word formation Morphological Analysis: Purpose b A critical task for the linguist and the language learner is to be able to break apart a string of sounds into meaningful units—morphemes. /wətʃjəduən/ /adəno/ /wanagoawt/ /jəgənəgoawt/ /dəno/
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2 Morphology b Phoneme: a minimal unit of sound b Morpheme: a minimal unit of meaning (the smallest unit of meaning) b Wait, what’s the difference? Weren’t we using minimal pairs (which have a difference in meaning) to figure out phonemic status? b Yes, but we were saying that the environment was also important s E.g., the frame b__t means different things, if we insert the phones [i] vs. [u]: beat vs. boot s We use this difference in meaning to uncover contrastive sounds within a language s But we never said that the [i] and [u] themselves hold a particular meaning—they need their context to make something meaningful So what’s a morpheme? b A sound (or combination of sounds) that is meaningful, b E.g., in English s [ Ȝ ] <a> is independently meaningful (marks nouns as singular), but [i] <ee> in <beet>, or <meet> isn’t s [ Ȝ n] <un-> is meaningful (means ‘not’), but [ Ȝ d] <ud> isn’t b The total set of meaningful morphemes that we know, the dictionary in our heads, is called our mental lexicon b Morphemes can be broken down (categorized) in several different ways Kinds of Morphemes: Independence b Free morphemes: Some morphemes can stand on their own as an independent word s the word ‘book’ has one morpheme b We can’t break it down into smaller meaningful chunks
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