W 6 and w 3 fatty acids compete with each other in

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Unformatted text preview: tory molecules. w-6 and w-3 fatty acids compete with each other in these reactions, and the nature of the products that are produced depends on the ratio of w-6 to w-3 fatty acids in the diet. w-3 fatty acids also have been found to have protective effects against cardiovascular disease. The mechanism of the cardiovascular effects is not known. 9. A. If genetic factors contribute to obesity, we’d expect the probabilities of obesity for twins to be correlated, and the correlation should be stronger for identical twins than for non-identical twins. If one twin is obese, the probability of obesity for the other twin should be higher than the probabiliy for the non-twin population. However, an observed correlation could result from non-genetic factors such as similarities in diet or socioeconomic influences. These complicating factors can be partly removed by studying twins who were adopted into different families, and by investigating correlations of obesity with dietary and socioeconomic factors in non-twin siblings and the general population. B. Elevated leptin could reflect a compensatory response to other genetic or dietary factors that tend to promote obesity. Such factors might include defects in the leptin receptor or in any of the regulatory mechanisms that function downstream from leptin or adiponectin (neuronal signals that increase blood pressure and heart rate, phosphorylation of acetylCoA carboxylase, and regulation of expression of fatty acid synthase, insulin and the mitochondrial uncoupling system)....
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